The investigation of the properties of matter has progressed so much during the past several years that today physics is classified into a large group of special branches. These branches arise because of distinguished by the particular area study, the investigation methods and so on. An important branch that has developed recently is thin film physics. The thin film physics is deals with systems which have only one common property that their dimension is very small, though all other physical properties of such systems may be different, as well as methods of investigating.
Generally, we investigate the physical properties of three-dimensional bodies and their characteristic properties are often related to a unit volume. In...
The reduction of distance between the surfaces, and their mutual interaction, obtain a result in the rise of completely new phenomena. Further, the reduction of one dimension of a material to an order of only few atomic layers may creates an intermediate system between macro and molecular systems, thus it will provide us with a method of investigation of the microphysical nature of different processes. These are all the reasons why thin films have attracted the physicists, and why the related technological branches have developed. It is unable to answer the question, what is the limitation to a film should be considered...
History of thin film technology
In the following a brief history of thin film technology is given for the sake of completeness:
• ~1650: Observation and interpretation of interference patterns (e. g. oil on water) by
R.Boyle, R.Hooke, I.Newton.
• ~1850: Development of first deposition techniques (M.Faraday; W.Grove; T.A.Edison) and of methods of thickness determination (Arago, Fizeau; Wernicke; Wiener) Commercial introduction of electrochemistry (Galvanics) for gold plating of uniform-accessories.
• ~1940: Industrial manufacturing of coatings for optical, electronical and mechanical applications (mostly military).
• ~1965: Thin film technology develops to an integral part of the mass manufacturing processes in semiconductor and optical industry.
• ~1990: Thin films of High Tc-Superconductors.
• ~1995: Thin film processing allows for the tailoring of microstructures of atomic and macroscopic dimensions (“Quantum-Dots” by PVD, “Cu-technology” by electrochemistry applied to integrated circuits).
• ~2000: Manufacturing of nanocrystalline materials with defined composition and structure for applications as protective coatings and in tribology. Deposition of highly ordered two and three dimensional objects with sizes in the nm...
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