Thesis Paragraph

Topics: Linguistics, Phonetics, International Phonetic Alphabet Pages: 6 (1025 words) Published: February 24, 2014
Lecture Two
The nature of the rules
- the underlying patterns (rules) of language are not obvious - we have unconscious knowledge of patterns and rules of our own language

If a linguist identifies a sentence as "grammatical" this means that the sentence conforms to the hypothesized rules of the mental grammar

When a linguist uses the word "Grammar" they mean:
mental grammar: is in our (individual) heads - shared by speakers if a language, with some variation,= linguistic competence - a model of this grammar is called descriptive grammar - just describes what people say and don't say

Variation and Grammatically
Ex: He might could go.
Is this grammatical?
If a native speaker would say/understand this sentence then it is considered correct

- there is no one single grammar of English
- it is only possible to model a dialect of English
- any dialect/language that anyone speaks natively is relevant for study - linguistics analysis shows that no dialect is more logical or systematic that another: all dialects have their own patterns

Mental Grammar
Claim: mental grammar contains a system of rules
- system of rules that is stored in the mind of a speakers that generates the words and sentences of that speakers language

Rules vs. memorizing or storing list of possible sentences < (alternative for saying "rules") - Overall: sentences are generated using rules and are not stored

Productivity: we can produce/understand potentially infinitely long sentences

a numbskull is not a numeral
an x is not a y
----- + rules = words/sentences

Collecting Data (to build a model) - relying on what speakers say = our data Data for the linguist:
Judgements vs. natural speech
Date = speakers' judgements about grammatical and ungrammatical forms (sentences)

Competence vs. Performance
When might performance not perfectly mirror competence? They aren't always the same because people make mistakes while speaking, like they can get distracted and not finish sentences or they could say a word wrong, etc Mental grammar = competence

Talking = performance

- we can make infinitely long sentences
but there will be limits on performance (memory, breath, attention) as opposed to competence (our knowledge of the system of language) - because performance can vary, we use speakers' judgements about the grammatically of sentences for our data

Grammatically = what a native speakers would say or find natural

Units & levels of linguistic representation
sounds > phonetics , phonology - study of sounds, sound systems of languages morphemes > morphology = morphemes + words - how do we put together a sentence Words > morphology, syntax - sentences and phrases

phrases > syntax
Sentences > syntax,

phonology - study of sounds, sound systems of languages
morphology = morphemes + words - how do we put together a sentence syntax - sentences and phrases

Phonetics vs. Phonology
Phonetics: the study of the physical properties of speech sounds phonology: the study of the mental representation of speech sounds

articulatory = how sounds are produced in the vocal tract
As a native speaker of a language you know which sounds are "distinctive" in your language "L" and "R" are perceived as different sounds in English but this is not the case in Korean!

Our actual pronunciation of words often does not match the perceived pronunciation (like cats vs. dogs and write vs. writer) Acoustically different sounds are put in the same category
Rules govern the changes we make

Phonetic Alphabet
International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)
Convention for representing speech sounds in written form

Why not we just use the english alphabet?

Why do we need a phonetic alphabet?
1. some words have silent letters
2. one letter can have different pronunciations
3. one sound can be represented by different letters
4. one sound can be represented by multiple letters

Ambiguity: no one - to -...
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