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Thesis in Language Research

By Marsinfinit Feb 24, 2013 4530 Words
Introduction

This Research focuses on the ability of the Secondary freshmen students who are proficient in reading skills in application level such context clues, note taking, fact and opinion and summarizing. In this research, the researcher used different theories and theorist to come up in experimentation with regards in the skills of Secondary freshmen students. The researcher used the principle of comprehensible inputs of Stephen Krushen and Operant Conditioning of B.F. Skinner. Comprehensible Inputs help the researcher to classify the level of Secondary Freshmen and classify what skills they are found weak and strong. Operant Conditioning also helps the researcher to know the effect of the unconditioned behavior of the student in learning reading skills in the application level.

These theories will help the researcher to come up to his theses title “Comprehensible Inputs and Operant Conditioning as Instructional Process to develop Secondary Freshmen Students’ Reading skills in the application level. This title is supported by thesis statements and sub-thesis statements; 1) Secondary freshmen students develop the reading skills (context clues, note taking, fact and opinion and summarizing in the application level easily and effectively if the conditioned behavior of the student will be reinforced by pleasurable consequences only; 2) Secondary freshmen students develop the reading skills (context clues, note taking, fact and opinion and summarizing in the application level more frequently if the conditioned of the behavior of the students will be reinforced either positive and negative consequences; 3) Secondary freshmen students develop the reading skills (context clues, note taking, fact and opinion and summarizing in the application level proficiently and effectively frequently if the conditioned of the behavior of the students will be reinforced will be reinforced by negative consequences; 4) Secondary freshmen students develop the reading skills (context clues, note taking, fact and opinion and summarizing in the application level if the students behavior is immediately followed by pleasurable consequences then the student will engage in that behavior more frequently. These thesis statements are meant to be achieved by classifying the Secondary freshmen Students ability and knowledge in reading skills. The researcher also formulated research objectives and questions, these research questions and objectives should be accomplished and answered after the experimentation process. The researcher is mainly focus on the five objectives to be accomplished; 1) Classify NTC Secondary freshmen who are proficient in reading skills ( context clues, note taking, fact and opinion and summarizing) in the application level; 2) Classify the level of the NTC Secondary freshmen in ( context clues, note taking, fact and opinion and summarizing) through the process of comprehensible inputs; 3) Identify which among the four reading skills (context clues, note taking, fact and opinion and summarizing) they can easily response and which among of the reading skills which they can find difficulty; 4) Determine how reinforcements affect the conditioned behavior of NTC Secondary freshmen in learning reading skills in the application level; 5) Determine how English teachers develop students’ reading skills in the application level by looking into the theory of Skinner and Krashen. The researcher set questions which are also congruent in research objectives; this can answer if the given objectives are achieved; 1) How NTC Secondary freshmen students classified their level of reading skills proficiency in (context clues, note taking, fact and opinion and summarizing) in the application level from the perspective of Krashen’s Comprehensible Inputs; 2) To what level of reading skills (context clues, note taking, fact and opinion and summarizing) classified NTC Secondary freshmen through the process of comprehensible Inputs; 3) In what level of reading skills (context clues, note taking, fact and opinion and summarizing) are the NTC Secondary Freshmen found weak and strong; 4)How does reinforcement affects the behavior and action of NTC Secondary Freshmen in learning the reading skills in application level; 5) How do English teachers help the students develop their reading skills clues, note taking, fact and opinion and summarizing) in the application level by looking into the perspective of Skinner and Krashen. This research is mainly focus on the questions HOW; how did Secondary Freshmen learn the reading skills and how reinforcements affect their conditioned behavior during and after the reading skill.

Part I

This case study entitled” Comprehensible Inputs and Comprehensible outputs as Instructional Process to develop Secondary Junior Students' Reading Skills in the application level" focuses on how Secondary Freshmen develop their reading skills in context clues, note taking, fact and opinion and summarizing. I used different views and principles on language. Before I come up to my thesis title I had many things to consider. This thesis title encompasses with the theory of Stephen Krushen and it has something to do with the comprehensible inputs. This comprehensible input is my guide or my springboard to know the ability, strengths and weakness of the Secondary Freshmen in developing reading skills. Where in only acquire language when we receive comprehensible input (CI). This hypothesis developed by Stephen Krashen is one of the most prominent modern theories in the fields of first language acquisition and second language acquisition (SLA) and I also used the theory of B.F. Skinner, the operant conditioning theory. This principle focuses on how Secondary Freshmen response to the lesson if the teacher gave reinforcements. is the use of a behavior's antecedent and/or its consequence to influence the occurrence and form of behavior. Operant conditioning is distinguished from classical conditioning (also called respondent conditioning) in that operant conditioning deals with the modification of "voluntary behavior" or operant behavior. Operant behavior "operates" on the environment and is maintained by its consequences, while classical conditioning deals with the conditioning of reflexive (reflex) behaviors which are elicited by antecedent conditions. Behaviors conditioned via a classical conditioning procedure are not maintained by consequences. In my research paper I used the principle of Operant Conditioning because I want to know if the Secondary Freshmen will response or react to a certain situation. If they will respond quickly or if they will respond ineffectively. This diagram shows the theory and theories of B.F. Skinner.

SPECIFIC LANGUAGE THEORY AND THEORIST

In this diagram, B.F. Skinner is based upon the idea that learning is a function of change in overt behavior. Changes in behavior are the result of an individual's response to events (stimuli) that occur in the environment. A response produces a consequence such as defining a word, hitting a ball, or solving a math problem. When a particular Stimulus-Response (S-R) pattern is reinforced (rewarded) the individual is conditioned to respond. The distinctive characteristic of operant conditioning relative to previous forms of behaviorism is that the organism can emit responses instead of only eliciting response due to an external stimulus. Reinforcement is the key element in Skinner's S-R theory. A reinforce is anything that strengthens the desired response. It could be verbal praise, a good grade or a feeling of increased accomplishment or satisfaction. The theory also covers negative reinforces any stimulus that results in the increased frequency of a response when it is withdrawn different from aversive stimuli and punishment which result in reduced responses. A great deal of attention was given to schedules of reinforcement and their effects on establishing and maintaining behavior. One of the distinctive aspects of Skinner's theory is that it attempted to provide behavioral explanations for a broad range of cognitive phenomena. In experimentation, reading the selection is my stimulus and the response is the student’s reaction about the selection they have read. After knowing the different views of the theorist in my experimentation I came up with the grand thesis statement and sub-thesis statement; this thesis statements are every essential factor to my case study. This will be my direction for me to be able to classify and determine the ability of the Secondary freshmen in terms of their level of reading skills in context clues, note taking, fact and opinion and summarizing. General thesis statement

Junior Students develop the four reading skills( context clues, note taking, fac and opinion and summarizing) in the application level as the result of stimulus- response pattern of conditioned behavior through the perspective of B.F. Skinner ( Operant Conditioning theory) and Krashen's (Comprehensible inputs) Sub- thesis statements

1. Secondary Junior Students develop the reading skills( context clues, note taking, fac and opinion and summarizing) in the application level easily and effectively if the conditioned behavior of the student will be reinforced by pleasurable consequences only.

2. Secondary Junior Students develop the reading skills ( context clues, note taking, fact and opinion and summarizing) in the application level more frequently if the conditioned behavior of the student will be reinforced either positive and negative consequences.

3. Secondary Junior Students develop the reading skills( context clues, note taking, fact and opinion and summarizing) in the application level proficiently and effectively if the conditioned behavior of the student will be reinforced by both negative and positive consequences.

4. Secondary Junior Students develop the reading skills ( context clues, note taking, fact and opinion and summarizing) in the application level slowly and ineffective if the conditioned behavior of the student will be reinforced by negative consequences only

5. Secondary Junior Students develop the reading skills ( context clues, note taking, fact and opinion and summarizing) in the application level if the students' behavior is immediately followed by pleasurable consequences, then the student will engage in that behavior more frequently.

1. My goal is to know the action or behavior of my students while discussing the four reading skills. In this situation I used the theory of Krushen. I used comprehensible inputs to know also if the students learned something about what I have discussed. I also my research objectives and questions; 1) Classify the level of the NTC Secondary Junior in context clues, cause and effect, fact and opinion, inference and outlining through the process of comprehensible inputs; 2) Identify which among the four reading skills (context clues, note taking, fact and opinion and summarizing ) they can easily response and which among the five reading skills which they can find difficulty; 3) Determine how reinforcements affect the conditioned behavior of NTC Secondary Junior that is proficient in reading skills; 4) Determine how English teachers develop students' reading skills in the application level by looking into the theory of Skinner; 5) Determine how English teachers develop students' reading skills in the application level by looking into the theory of Skinner ( Operant Conditioning theory) and Krashen ( Comprehensible Inputs) these objectives should be attained with the help of research questions; 1) How are NTC Secondary Junior Students classified their level of reading skills (context clues, cause and effect, fact and opinion, inference and outlining) in the application level by looking into the perspective of and Krashen (Comprehensible Inputs)?; 2)To what level of reading skills (context clues, cause and effect, fact and opinion, inference and outlining) do NTC Secondary Juniors classified through the process of Comprehensible inputs?; 3)In what level of reading (context clues, cause and effect, fact and opinion, inference and outlining) found NTC Secondary Junior weak and strong?; 4) How does the reinforcement affect the behavior and action of NTC Secondary Junior in learning the reading skills in application level?; 5) How do English teachers help the students develop their reading skills (context clues, cause and effect, fact and opinion, inference and outlining) in application level by looking into the perspective of Skinner (Operant Conditioning theory) and Krashen ( Comprehensible Inputs)?

My experimentation is focuses on the inputs and behavior of the Secondary Freshmen before and after teaching. In this diagram shows the process that I undergone in the high school laboratory. This helped me to achieve my goals and objectives throughout my teaching.

RESEACRH PARADIGM

I had undergone this paradigm while I was teaching Secondary freshmen. At first I acquired the principle of Krushen and Skinner. In comprehensible inputs means that students should be able to understand the essence of what is being said or presented to them. This does not mean, however, that teachers must use only words students understand. In fact, instruction can be incomprehensible even when students know all of the words. Students learn a new language best when they receive input that is just a bit more and the theory of B. F. Skinner and it has something to do with the stimulus and response of the students if I used positive and negative reinforcements. At first my goal is to classify the level of reading skills, if Secondary Freshmen has already knowledge about reading skills. Context clues, note taking, fact and opinion and summarizing will serve as my comprehensible input for me to be able to assess the level of reading skills of Secondary freshmen. Using comprehensible input I will be able to know their reaction and behavior through from their interaction and participation. I will be able to know if learning occurs or students will response if I used positive reinforcements only. Students will response if I used both negative and positive reinforcements. Students will response if I used negative only. From those comprehensible inputs I can easily know if the Secondary Freshmen learned the four reading skills such as context cues, note taking, fact and opinion and summarizing, this is only means that the learning is satisfying and my goal are achieved but if the input and response of the students is not good from the four reading skills definitely the students are not learned so the result is annoying and the set goals are not achieved. Reinforcements have a great influence to the behavior and learning of the students. If the behavior of the Secondary freshmen is satisfying definitely the reinforcement will be positive but if the behavior of the Secondary freshmen is annoying definitely the reinforcements of the teacher will be negative. Positive reinforcement such praises incentives, grades and rewards. Negative reinforcements are any kind of punishments to the students.

Part 2

Methodology

In this research paper, one of my goals is to classify Secondary freshmen who are proficient in the four reading skills such context clues, note taking, fact and opinion and summarizing. And be able to know to what skills they are found weak and strong. This table below shows the result of the three kinds of test that I administered. The Diagnostic test composed of topics about context clues, note taking, fact and opinion and summarizing. This diagnostic test is given to the Secondary Freshmen for me to able to know if they have the ability to the four reading skills. Followed by a formative test, this test is given to the students if they really understood and learned the four reading skills and lastly the achievement test, this test is given for me to be able to conclude that they develop their skills in reading. This test shows the development or progress of the student in each reading skills. In this tabulation, you can see the four reading skills they found weak and strong and how secondary freshmen develop their level of reading skills in the application level.

Part 4
Tabulation
Tabulation of the top Secondary Freshmen results for Note taking skills.

|Student |Score |Rank | |1 |10 |1 | |2 |10 |2 | |3 |10 |3 | |4 |10 |4 | |5 |10 |5 | |6 |8 |6 | |7 |8 |7 | |8 |8 |8 | |9 |8 |9 | |10 |8 |10 | |11 |8 |11 |

Mean: 7.52 or 8

Tabulation of the top Secondary freshmen results for summarizing

|Student |Score |Rank | |1 |10 |1 | |2 |10 |2 | |3 |10 |3 | |4 |10 |4 | |5 |10 |5 | |6 |6 |6 | |7 |6 |7 |

Mean: 5. 67 or 6

Tabulation of the top Secondary Freshmen for fact and Opinion

|1 |7 |1 | |2 |7 |2 | |3 |7 |3 | |4 |7 |4 | |5 |7 |5 | |6 |7 |6 | |7 |7 |7 | |8 |6 |8 | |9 |6 |9 | |10 |6 |10 | |11 |6 |11 | |12 |6 |12 | |13 |6 |13 | |14 |6 |14 | |15 |6 |15 | |16 |6 |16 | |17 |6 |17 | |18 |6 |18 | |19 |6 |19 | |20 |6 |20 | |21 |6 |21 | |22 |6 |22 | |23 |6 |23 | |24 |6 |24 | |25 |5 |25 | |26 |5 |26 | |27 |5 |27 | |28 |5 |28 | |29 |5 |29 | |30 |5 |30 | |31 |5 |31 | |32 |5 |32 |

Tabulation of Secondary Freshmen for Contrast and Comparison

|Student |Score |Rank | |1 |20 |1 | |2 |20 |2 | |3 |20 |3 | |4 |18 |4 | |5 |17 |5 | |6 |17 |6 | |7 |17 |7 | |8 |17 |8 | |9 |17 |9 | |10 |16 |10 | |11 |16 |11 | |12 |16 |12 | |13 |15 |13 | |14 |13 |14 | |15 |13 |15 | |16 |13 |16 | |17 |12 |17 | |18 |11 |18 | |19 |11 |19 | |20 |11 |20 | |21 |11 |21 | |22 |10 |22 |

Mean: 10

This table shows the number of the students who got high scores in the four reading skills such note taking, fact and opinion, contrast and comparison and summarizing. In this tabulation, many students passed the test in distinguishing fact and opinion and contrast and comparison. And only few students passed in the note taking and summarizing skills.

Part 5

Findings, Analysis and Interpretations

The researcher used the criterion reference to know the number of the students who are passed and failed in the test. The researcher also computed the mean of different skills. In note taking skills, the researcher got 5 as a mean. The researcher got 6 as criterion reference. The Secondary freshmen should be able to get 6 correct answers and above. 12 students didn’t pass the formative test in note taking skill and 33 students passed the test. In summarizing skills, the researcher got 2.13 as a mean, the mean is too low because it affects the raw score of the students. In this skill, the students got the lowest correct answers. The researcher got 6 as criterion reference. The Secondary freshmen should be able to get 6 correct answers out of 10. In distinguishing fact and opinion, Secondary freshmen got the highest number of correct answers. The researcher got 10 as a mean. The researcher got 12 as criterion reference. The Secondary freshmen should be able to get 12 correct answers and above to pass the test. 17 students failed and 18 students passed the test in this skill. In comparison and contrast, the researcher got 5 as mean and 4.2 as criterion reference. The Secondary freshmen should be able to get 4 correct answers out of 7. 7 students failed and 38 students passed in this skill.

|Reading skills |No. of students passed the test |Remarks | |Note taking |19/45 |Weak | |Summarizing |8/45 |Weak | |Fact and Opinion |38/45 |Strong | |Contrast and Comparison |28/45 |Strong |

As the results given, the Secondary Freshmen are proficient in distinguishing fact and opinion. In this test, the students got the highest number who is passed in this skill. Out of 45 students, 38 students passed in this skill. Followed by the skills in distinguishing comparison and contrast, out of 45 students, 28 students are passed in this skill. The least number of students passed are in the noting details and summarizing skills. In noting details, out of 45 students, only 19 students passed in this skill and 8 students passed out of 45 in summarizing skills. The Secondary Freshmen are proficient in fact and opinion and comparison and contrast skills. Secondary freshmen are found weak in fact and opinion and comparison and contrast skills. Secondary freshmen are found weak in the skills of note taking and summarizing. Secondary freshmen found weak in the skills of note taking and summarizing, these two skills in reading are very complicated. At first, freshmen don’t have enough knowledge and ability to list down important details and to summarize a particular selection. And it is not easy to take down details and to summarize a selection because students might not read the selection or a passage anymore. They are just copy and paste what is written on a passage or selection. The Secondary freshmen found strong in the skills of distinguishing fact and opinion and contrasting and comparing. At first, these two skills in reading are very simple and easy to lean unlike the skills mentioned above. I would say that Secondary freshmen do have the ability to distinguish fact from opinion and contrasting and comparing. It is easy for them to differentiate the fact from opinion and comparison and contrast because of the words that signal in a statement. The behavior and interaction of the student is depends on the performance they did. In noting details and summarizing, the teacher might be able to give a negative reinforcement such as punishment or a surprise test or long test for those skills while in distinguishing fact and opinion and contrast and comparison, the teacher will be able to give praises and rewards for those students passed in the test.

Part 6

Conclusion

The researcher came to realize that Secondary Freshmen students are proficient in the skills of distinguishing comparison and contrast. They are good in analyzing the statement whether it is comparing or contrasting. They are good in finding the signals used in a statement. 39 students pass the test in this skill thus, there were 7 individuals who didn’t make it. This is only shows that Secondary freshmen do have the ability in distinguishing comparison and contrast statement. I conclude that Secondary freshmen are proficient and have knowledge and ability in distinguishing comparison and contrast. Secondary freshmen are found weak in the skills noting details and summarizing because these two skills are very complicated to learn and these skills will test patience, critical thinking and comprehension to answers questions with regards to the given selection and to summarize the selection in considering the minor and major details. Secondary freshmen found strong in the skills distinguishing fact and opinion and contrast and comparison. The researcher also wants to conclude that the interaction of the student is depends on the situation takes place in the classroom. The students will response if the teacher is giving reward, praises and the alike, if the teacher is giving negative reinforcement the more they will not learn. If the interaction of the students is satisfying definitely the teacher will give positive reinforcements because of their performance in the classroom. If the interaction of the students is annoying definitely the teacher will give negative reinforcements as the result of their actions.

Part 5

Recommendations

The Secondary freshmen develop their reading skills in note taking, fact and opinion, contrast and comparison and summarizing by considering first their ability and needs as a learner. The teacher should be considerate first in their behavior oh how they can react in a particular situation. Comprehensible input is just a guide to know if the students really absorbed something from what you have discussed. This will be the instrument if the teacher wants to achieve something by her students. In developing the ability of the students in reading skills such as note taking, fact and opinion, contrast and comparison and summarizing can improve if the teacher has also the ability to teach the different reading skills. The teacher is the one who is responsible in the learning process of the students. Secondary freshmen can easily absorb the skills in reading by reading attentively, making an outline of the passage or selection, looking of the unfamiliar words in that passage or selection, identifying signals used in a particular passage or selection and giving importance to the to the different kind of text you are going to use. The researcher also wants to give emphasize to the behavior of the Secondary freshmen. The students will be more motivated if the teacher is motivated too. Positive reinforcements are not good sometimes because it will create unnecessary actions for those who are always failed in the test. Discrimination will arises. Sometimes, negative reinforcements are good because students will be more responsible enough from the mistake they undergone through in the past. They will become motivated in studying, negative reinforcement is not only means punishment sometimes it serves as a motivation for the students to learn better.

Acknowledgement

I would like to thank my savior God for giving me strength, patience and intelligence to finish my case study. I would like to thank also my family for being very supportive all the time, for their guidance, love and deepest care that they shown in every minute that they saw me working at night. I would like to thank my best friend; she’s always there if I needed help so much. She never had a second thought to help me. I would like to thank also my special someone who really shown his love, care and support. I really appreciate his effort to show that he really cares. I would like to say my deepest gratitude to my teachers, mentors and advisers. They are there my instrument to be a better individual, to be a responsible citicizen and to be a good teacher someday. They are my second mother who thought me those things I never knew, who filled my mind with such knowledge, who reminds me of my mistakes, who guides me to the right direction and who always be a good model for model.

Those people are my inspiration, my armor shield in the war, my light to see the good things around me and my instrument that molded my life with love, care and support. This case study will not be possible without their presence. I wouldn’t have everything right now if not because of those people who believes in my capability to finish this task.

Bibliography

Domjan, Michael, Ed., The Principles of Learning and Behavior, Fifth Edition, Belmont, CA: Thomson/Wadsworth, 2003

Tucker, M., Sigafoos, J., & Bushell, H. (1998). Use of noncontingent reinforcement in the treatment of challenging behavior. Behavior Modification, 22, 529–547.

Michael J. Frank, Lauren C. Seeberger, and Randall C. O'Reilly (2004) "By Carrot or by Stick: Cognitive Reinforcement Learning in Parkinsonism," Science 4, November 2004

Schütz, Ricardo. "Stephen Krashen's Theory of Second Language Acquisition." English Made in Brazil . Online. 28 de março de 2005.  Krashen, Stephen D.  Second Language Acquisition and Second Language Learning.  Prentice-Hall International, 1988. J. O. Cooper, T. E. Heron, & W. L. Heward, Applied behavior analysis (2nd ed.) Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall/Merrill.

-----------------------

REINFORCEMENT

Consequences

Behavior

NTC Secondary Junior

Level of Learning Skills

Positive

Reinforcement

Application

Level of Learning Skills

Note taking

summarizing

Fact and opinion

Cause and effect

Context clues

Comprehensible Input

LOW?

HIGH?

Application

Learned the skills?

Conditioned behavior

+ R

Satisfying

- R

Annoying

Not learned the skills?

Negative

Reinforcement

B.F. Skinner Operant Conditioning Theory

• Reflective behavior accounts for only a small proportion of all actions.

• When a behavior is followed by a POSITIVE (+) reinforcer, the behavior will maintain or increase in frequency and probability of that behavior occurring in the future

• When a behavior is followed by a NEGATIVE (-) reinforcer, the behavior will decrease in frequency and probability of that behavior occurring in the future

• Learning is operating and influenced by the environment, it is the consequence that follows the response that influences whether the response is likely or unlikely to occur again

• Operant conditioning that voluntary responses are learned.

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