Thermodynamics of Colloid
Colloids is a system which consist of two or more phase, which are dispersed phase and medium of dispersion. The size of colloids particle is in the range of 10-9m to 10-6m. However this molecules is too small to be viewed under ordinary optical microscopy measurement. This colloidal particles is classified into several type, based on the physical state of the dispersed phase and dispersed medium. Moreover for solution, it can be defined as a homogenous phase which is formed by dissolving one or more substance (solid, liquid or gas) into another substance. A solution can be a solid solution (e.g. an olivine), a liquid solution for example an aqueous solution that results from the dissolution of sodium chloride solid crystals in water or it can be a gas solution (e.g. a mixture of oxygen gas and carbon dioxide gas in the air). This solution may be ideal or non-ideal. The type of solution whether it is ideal or non-ideal, will have a different thermodynamic function.
Thermodynamics is a system where it is about a relation of conservation of energy and the movement or transferring of energy to predict the spontaneous direction of a chemical process that occur and it’s equilibrium state when reached.
In this topic of solution thermodynamics, it is focusing on colloidal solution. It is important for us to understand the concept of osmotic pressure and the equilibrium reached. Thus, in this topic we will study about osmotic pressure, osmometry application, the statistical foundations of osmotic pressure, osmotic equilibrium of charged system and lastly the application of osmotic phenomena.
5.0- Osmotic Equilibrium of Charged System
Charged stabilised system in colloid is a multi component system which consist of colloidal macroions and microscopic counter and co-ions that immersed in a system.(Royall, et al.2005). While, according to Donnan, 1911 the thermodynamic equilibrium that exist between charged colloids