a. Stuttering is a type of fluency disorder that can affect both children and adults. According to Roth and Worthington, stuttering is characterized by a high frequency and duration of stoppages in the forward flow of speech. The core behaviors of stuttering include repetitions of sounds, prolongations of sounds and blocks of airflow during speech. Secondary characteristics tend to develop as reactions to these core behaviors. These characteristics vary from person to person and can include eye blinks, head nods and foot taps. The ASHA website states that the exact cause of stuttering is unknown, but there are many therapy techniques that can be employed to help improve the fluency of those who stutter. b. Liam Thayer is 12 years old whose speech is characterized by part and whole word repetitions, repetitions of initial sounds, prolongations of initial sounds and blocks. He displays some secondary behaviors such as lip tremors, head jerking and fist clenching. A 200-syllable spontaneous speech sample was taken. Of this speech sample, 30% of syllables were disfluent. Liam’s parents report that he gets frustrated and anxious when it comes to his speech. His academic performance is normal for his age and his developmental history is unremarkable. Part 2:
Liam will successfully employ the cancellation technique when presented with a word stimulus with 70% accuracy in trials with minimal cueing Part 3:
Liam’s treatment will include Stuttering Modification/Management. This strategy, also called the “stutter more fluently” approach, focuses on reducing struggle and avoidance behaviors rather than completely eradicating disfluencies. Stuttering Modification consists of teaching the client a hierarchy of three techniques, cancellations, pull-outs and preparatory sets. Cancellations are the first step in Stuttering Modification. The individual is taught to complete the word that was stuttered and pause deliberately after the word is produced. The client...
Cited: Owens, R. E., Metz, D. E., & Haas, A. (2007). Introduction to Communication Disorders: A Lifespan Perspective (3rd ed.). Boston: Pearson/Allyn and Bacon.
Roth, F. P., & Worthington, C. K. (2005). Treatment resource manual for speech-language pathology (3rd ed.). Australia: Thomson Delmar Learning.
Strategies for Fluency . (n.d.). Fluency Friday . Retrieved April 28, 2014, from http://www.fluencyfriday.org/Strategies%20revised.pdf
Welcome to TeAch-nology.com. (n.d.). Worksheets, Lesson Plans, Teacher Resources, and Rubrics from TeAch-nology.com. Retrieved May 9, 2014, from http://www.teach-nology.com/
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