Theory of Multiple Intelligences
American Military University
Professor Corey Tutor
Howard Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences is comprised of eight intelligences. A further analysis will be concentrated on three specific areas and the impact each has on an individual’s overall personal success. These intelligences include: linguistic intelligence which refers to verbal intelligence, interpersonal intelligence is being able to appreciate and identify what others require, and intrapersonal intelligence refers to one’s self and their abilities (Smith, 2002, 2008).
An overview to Gardner’s Theory is best represented by the creator, “Intelligence is multifaceted; that is, aspects of it can be expressed in many domains.” (Kowalski & Westen, 2011, p. 271) “We can thus define intelligence as the application of cognitive skills and knowledge to learn, solve problems, and obtain ends that are valued by an individual or Culture” (see Gardner, 1983, p. ?). “It is also to some extent culturally shaped and culturally defined, since cultural practices support and recognize intellectual qualities that are useful in the social and ecological context.” (Kowalski & Westen, 2011, p.274). Gardner’s Theory was developed due to his belief in the existence of only one inventory for intelligence. He used many criteria to come up with these eight intelligences. These criteria dealt with damage to the brain indicating how a portion of the brain could be affected while the other portion still worked fine. Another criteria area was savants and prodigies. Savants are people possessing an astonishing intelligence in a particular area and little intelligence when it comes to additional areas. Prodigies are people possessing above average intelligence, “early- developing genius,” in a particular area, and normal intelligence when it comes to additional areas. (Kowalski & Westen, 2011, p. 290). Other criteria include how fast an individual is able to retain information in one area but demonstrates a lower retention in other categories, “identifiable core operation or set of operations, evolutionary history and evolutionary plausibility, support from experimental psychological tasks and psychometric findings, and susceptibility to encoding in a symbol system.” (Smith, 2002, 2008, pp. 3-4). Hereditary factors do affect intelligence, particularly when a child is really young, such as if the mother did not have much schooling, the mother is being mentally sick, how large the family is, and socioeconomic status. The increased amount of factors, the less of an IQ the child will have. Adoption plays a hereditary factor amongst the IQ’s being diverse (Kowalski & Westen, 2011). Race is another factor that affects intelligence. There is a notable increase in the “IQ scores of White Americans and African Americans.” (Kowalski & Westen, 2011, p. 295) Studies have shown that, African Americans children who that were adopted by white foster parents, had greater IQ scores than African Americans children who that were being raised by African Americans families in their own communities (Kowalski & Westen, 2011). Linguistic intelligence has to do with “spoken and written language, the ability to learn language, and the capacity to use language to accomplish certain goals.” (Smith, 2002, 2008, p. 4). It is a way for an individual to express their beliefs, as well as remember information. (Smith, 2002, 2008). This intelligence is of high importance in all areas of society; possessing the ability to communicate effectively with all levels of personale increases one’s ability to increase efforts. This intelligence allows an individual to transcribe information accurately, make necessary notations allowing other parties to correctly process the information being communicated. When investigating a business setting an individual with high linguistic skills will be most successful in stimulating interest in one’s cause. Another...
References: Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences. New York,: Basic Books.
Kowalski, R., & Westen, D. (2011). Psychology (6th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Smith, M.K. (2002, 2008). Howard Gardner and multiple intelligences. The Encyclopedia of Informal Education, (), 1-12. Retrieved from http://www.infed.org/thinkers/gardner.htm.
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