Top-Rated Free Essay

Theories of Personality

Good Essays
Theories of Personality
Personality
sum total of the qualities and characteristics of a person as shown in her manner of walking, talking, dressing, and her attitudes, interests, and ways of reacting to other people came from the Latin word “persona” which means mask
Psychoanalysis (Sigmund Freud) believes that there are 3 levels of awareness of one’s mind conscious preconscious unconscious acc. to Freud, there are 3 parts of personality id (pleasure) ego (reality) superego (moral center of one’s personality)
Carl Gustav Jung believed that there is a collective unconscious that contains archetypes or models of people, behaviors, and personalities which are innate, universal, and hereditary
4 major archetypes the self the shadow the anima or animus the persona
Birth Order Theory (Alfred Adler) proposed feelings of inferiority as the driving force behind personality firstborn (feel inferior once younger siblings get attention) middle child (feel superior over older child and dominate other siblings) younger child (feel inferior because they do not have the responsibility of older siblings)

Birth Order Theory (Frank Sulloway) firstborns are more dominant and less open younger children are open and rebellious
Behaviorist Perspective of Personality a set of learned responses or habits everything a person or an animal does is a response to some environmental stimulus that has been reinforced or strengthened by reward in some way actions are always to make a positive result happen or keep a negative result from happening (reinforcement and punishment)

Social Cognitive Perspective of Personality (Albert Bandura) believed that there are 3 factors that influence one another, which determines personality the environment characteristics of the person behavior reciprocal determinism: the environment can influence behavior, but behavior can also influence change in the environment social-efficacy: a persons’ belief in his/her competencies can actually produce designated level of performance or result
Humanistic Perspective of Personality focuses on the things that make people uniquely human, such as subjective emotions and the freedom to choose one’s own destiny or the fulfillment of one’s potential rather than reacting to environmental stimuli and reinforcers.
Humanistic Perspective of Personality (Carl Rogers) proposed that a person operates his own belief about themselves or the essence of self-concept he agreed with Abraham Maslow that man’s basic motive is the tendency to self-actualize; it is fulfilling one’s potential and achieving the highest level of beingness.

Trait Theory of Personality (Gordon Allport) three general levels of traits
Cardinal Traits – traits that dominate an individual to the point that a person becomes known specially for these traits
Central Traits – general traits used to describe another person
Secondary Traits – traits that are sometimes related to attitudes or preferences and often appear on certain situations or specific circumstances
Big-Five Theory
1. Openness – refers to being open about one’s ideas of one’s surroundings
2. Conscientiousness – the tendency to be scientific and formal
3. Extraversion – is being social and outgoing (extrovert)
4. Agreeableness – is being understanding about others
5. Neuroticism – is being sensitive about the self and feeling emotions such as nervousness
Assessment of Personality
Interviews
Projective tests
Rorschach Inkblot Test (Hermann Rorschach)
Thematic Apperception Test(TAT) (Henry A. Murray & Christiana D. Morgan)
Personality Inventories
NEO Personality Inventory: used to measure the Big-Five Personality Traits
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI): initially developed by Katharine Cook Briggs and her daughter Isabel Briggs Myers
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2): designed to aid in the assessment of a wide range of clinical conditions. In a nonclinical setting

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Powerful Essays

    Personality Theories

    • 1991 Words
    • 8 Pages

    of years; what shapes one’s personality? In the case above, one might argue without the shadow of a doubt that personality is genetic, others might argue that the way those children were raised, impacted on their personalities and so on. There are six theories of personality, all differing from one to the other, yet attempting to understand and describe the structure of personality and to study the individual differences within personality. In other words personality psychologists seek to understand…

    • 1991 Words
    • 8 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    Theories of Personality

    • 2029 Words
    • 9 Pages

    PERSONALITY What is more important in determining your behavior - your personality or the siltation in which you are in (the environment)? Are you a "nice" person? If you said yes, are you always nice? The answer, if you are being honest, is no. The question then is, if you are a "nice" person (and thus that is part of your personality), why aren't you nice all the time; how can you be every not be nice if that is your personality? According to personality theorists, the human personality is…

    • 2029 Words
    • 9 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Good Essays

    Theories of Personality

    • 2263 Words
    • 10 Pages

    What is the meaning of Personality? Personality is defined as an individual’s unique and stable pattern of characteristics and behaviours. It is the essence or uniqueness of one’s behavior. No two persons are alike, even twins have different personalities. Personality comes from the two Latin words ‘per” and “sonare”, which means “to sound through.” The Romans in Greek and Latin drama referred to it as “persona” the theatrical masks worn by actors as they perform the role expected by viewers and…

    • 2263 Words
    • 10 Pages
    Good Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    Personality Theory

    • 1541 Words
    • 7 Pages

    Personality Theory Andrea Simpson HHS 310 H & HS Culture: The Helping Relationship Instructor: Patricia Knight June 18, 2012 Personality Theory The theory that I chose, that best suits my personality, is the Humanistic Holistic Theory. This theory emphasizes “on engaging the whole person and focusing on the future rather than the past” (Brill & Levine, 2005, p.58). This theory best suits my personality, because it shows that a person can change. A person’s personality is not based…

    • 1541 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    Personality Theories

    • 3235 Words
    • 13 Pages

    Personality Theories Psychodynamic theorists And Humanistic theories Table of Contents Freud Jung Adler Rogers Maslow Humanistic strengths and weakness Psychodynamic strengths and weakness Some similarities of both Web Resources Freud Biography Biography Sigmund Freud was born May 6, 1856, in a small town -- Freiberg -- in Moravia. His father was a wool merchant with a keen mind and a good sense of humor. His mother was a lively woman, her husband's second wife and 20 years…

    • 3235 Words
    • 13 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    Personality Theories

    • 5598 Words
    • 23 Pages

    Personality Theories Almost everyday we describe and assess the personalities of the people around us. Whether we realize it or not, these daily musings on how and why people behave as they do are similar to what personality psychologists do. Personality psychology looks at the patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behavior that make a person unique. Some of the best known theories in psychology are devoted to the subject of personality. Almost everyday we describe and assess the personalities of…

    • 5598 Words
    • 23 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Better Essays

    Personality Theories

    • 1078 Words
    • 3 Pages

    Personality Theories Michele Robinson BEH/225 December 14, 2014 Deanna Foley Personality Theories Freud believes that behavior is the part of personality that are found in the unconscious we are not aware of. Freud has three parts of awareness and consciousness that are the conscious mind, the preconscious mind, and the unconscious mind. Preconscious is the small amount that is on the surface. Unconscious is someone feelings and thoughts that are deep inside them. Conscious is the awareness or perception…

    • 1078 Words
    • 3 Pages
    Better Essays
  • Powerful Essays

    Personality Theories

    • 1796 Words
    • 8 Pages

    Introduction The purpose of this essay is to review theories that have been linked and discussed in regards to personality. It aims to define personality, summarize the main ideas across different articles, pointing out the strengths and weaknesses that are in the articles. It also links my personal experience of personality traits to the theory of personality. The essay begins by defining personality from different articles and books, then analyzing critically the key definitions. Furthermore…

    • 1796 Words
    • 8 Pages
    Powerful Essays
  • Better Essays

    Personality Theory

    • 1501 Words
    • 7 Pages

    Personality Theory Abstract In the past few weeks we have explored human personality development as theorized by some of the world’s most recognized, respected and celebrated psychologists in the field of psychoanalysis. People exists in a culture dependant on social interactions whether it be in their immediate family structure or outside in a community basis, individual personality…

    • 1501 Words
    • 7 Pages
    Better Essays
  • Better Essays

    Theories of Personality

    • 1172 Words
    • 5 Pages

    Running head: THEORIES OF PERSONALITY PSY 405 Theories of Personality January 31, 2011 Theories of Personality Humans are exceptionally unique and individual creatures. No two people are exactly the same. Even identical twins retain distinctiveness as their behaviors and qualities may be very different. The numerous differences that are observed among people can easily be attributed to the various characteristics and traits of each individual’s personality. Personality is completely exclusive…

    • 1172 Words
    • 5 Pages
    Better Essays