1. Instinct Theory
The assumption of the theory is that there is an innate biological force causing an organism to act in a certain way. These “forces” are perceived to be automatic, involuntary, and unlearned behavior patterns or reflexive behaviors that are elicited when certain stimuli are present.
2. Homeostatic Theories
The assumptions of the homeostatic theory are that organisms attempt to maintain homeostasis, the balance of physiological state or equilibrium, by constantly adjusting themselves to the demands of the environment. It can be noted that every living thing has certain biological needs, sex, hunger, thirst, that is caused by imbalance because those variables are absent in the physical body.
3. Arousal Theory
The Arousal Theory states that rather than all organisms being motivated to seek to reduce arousal. They seek to maintain an optimal level of arousal and this optimal level varies from organism to organism. Like in the case of extroverts, research shows they have lower level of cortical arousal so they are more likely to seek arousal. Therefore, there is a possibility that extroverts are more likely to smoke, drink alcohol, have frequent sex, like loud music, eat spicy foods, and engage in activities that are novel and risky. The opposite goes with introverts who are believed to have a higher level of cortical arousal, so they don’t need as much as external stimulation. Introverts, thus, are less likely to do the things that extroverts do.
4. Incentive Theory
According to this theory, people and animals are likely to be activated because they have tendency to be pulled toward a specific goal. Theorist believes in this idea rather than the assumption that people or animals are pushed to do things. People and animals will perform the behavior in order to accomplish those goals. Thus, people and animals are motivated by hedonism. They would try to maximize their pleasure and minimize their pain. People would