Theories of Motivation
1. Instinct Theory
The assumption of the theory is that there is an innate biological force causing an organism to act in a certain way. These “forces” are perceived to be automatic, involuntary, and unlearned behavior patterns or reflexive behaviors that are elicited when certain stimuli are present.
2. Homeostatic Theories
The assumptions of the homeostatic theory are that organisms attempt to maintain homeostasis, the balance of physiological state or equilibrium, by constantly adjusting themselves to the demands of the environment. It can be noted that every living thing has certain biological needs, sex, hunger, thirst, that is caused by imbalance because those variables are absent in the physical body.
3. Arousal Theory
The Arousal Theory states that rather than all organisms being motivated to seek to reduce arousal. They seek to maintain an optimal level of arousal and this optimal level varies from organism to organism. Like in the case of extroverts, research shows they have lower level of cortical arousal so they are more likely to seek arousal. Therefore, there is a possibility that extroverts are more likely to smoke, drink alcohol, have frequent sex, like loud music, eat spicy foods, and engage in activities that are novel and risky. The opposite goes with introverts who are believed to have a higher level of cortical arousal, so they don’t need as much as external stimulation. Introverts, thus, are less likely to do the things that extroverts do.
4. Incentive Theory
According to this theory, people and animals are likely to be activated because they have tendency to be pulled toward a specific goal. Theorist believes in this idea rather than the assumption that people or animals are pushed to do things. People and animals will perform the behavior in order to accomplish those goals. Thus, people and animals are motivated by hedonism. They would try to maximize their pleasure and minimize their pain. People would then attempt to attain goals that are pleasurable and they try to avoid goals that are painful.
5. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
One of the most popular theories in motivation is Abraham Maslow’s Sequential Theory of Development. Maslow made a hypothesis that our needs are prioritized from physiological, to biological, to social, and up to the spiritual. He believed that the needs at the lower levels had to be satisfied before one could focus on satisfying needs at the higher levels.
6. Freudian Concept of Motivation
According to the theory of Sigmund Freud, sexual or libidinal and aggressive wishes are the primary motivating forces in human life. In Freudian thinking, every psychic act (thoughts, feelings, fantasies, plans, etc.) contains elements of both the libidinal and aggressive drives in varying proportions, and both play an essential role in psychic life and conflict.
7. Other Concepts of Motivation
An American psychologist Magda B. Arnold stated that there are three (3) components of motivation: *direction-what a person is trying to do
*effort-how hard a person is trying
*persistence-how long a person keeps on trying
2 Types of Factors that Influence Motivation:
Intrinsic-these are self-generated factors such as responsibility, freedom to act, scope to use and develop skills and abilities, perform interesting and challenging works, and opportunities for self-enhancement. Intrinsic motivation usually has deeper and longer-term effect. Extrinsic-these are motivations coming from the people around the individual. It may be in a form of rewards, promotion, or even punishment. Extrinsic motivation has an immediate and powerful effect. But it won’t necessarily last long.
8. Needs Theory
One of the most influential theories based on the content of motives is the needs theory. This is based on the belief that all behaviors are motivated by unsatisfied needs. So when an individual has unsatisfied need. He tends to create tension and would enter...
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