Theories of management and leadership
Trait theory : People are born with inherited traits, some of which are suited to leadership, people who make good leaders have the right or sufficient number of traits.
Command and control theory: Only leader knows best – context, issues, solutions. Leader is expert and is the only person with the complete overview. Others follow willingly, or through power and pressure. Characterised by status, sought control, hierarchy and power differentials. What matters is will, fortitude, courage (and being right!).
Transactional theory: People are extrinsically motivated; reward and punishment works. Social systems work best with a clear chain of command, When people agree to do a job, a part of the deal is that they cede all authority to their manager. The primary purpose of a sub-ordinate is to do what their manager tells them
Situational theory : The best action of the leader depends on a range of situational factors, notably the motivation, commitment and capability of followers.
Visionary theory: People will follow a leader who inspires them. Leader creates compelling images and visions, tells stories, and thereby creates energy to move towards a bright future. people will follow a leader with passion who inspires them, often with devotion. Effective when people need motivating and in times of change.
Relational: It’s personal! Leadership happens between people, in the moment. Not the property of leader or follower but of their interaction. Context is all important and is to be worked not fought. Leader is in charge but not in control. Containing anxiety and becoming the leader you can be (rather than ought to be) are central.
Participative Leadership: Involvement in decision-making improves the understanding of the issues involved by those who must carry out the decisions. People are more committed to actions where they have involved in the relevant decision-making. People are less competitive and more collaborative when they are working on joint goals.
Contingency theory : The leader's ability to lead is contingent upon various situational factors, including the leader's preferred style, the capabilities and behaviours of followers and also various other situational factors. Contingency theories are a class of behavioural theory that contend that there is no one best way of leading and that a leadership style that is effective in some situations may not be successful in others. An effect of this is that leaders who are very effective at one place and time may become unsuccessful either when transplanted to another situation or when the factors around them change.
Over time, several core theories about leadership have emerged. These theories fall into four main categories: Trait theories, Behavioural theories, Contingency theories, Power and influence theories. "Transformational leadership," is the most effective style to use in most business situations. However, you can become a more effective leader by learning about these core leadership theories, and understanding the tools and models associated with each one.
• Avolio B. et al (2009). Leadership: current theories, research and future direction. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 60: 421-49 • Binney G. (2005)Living Leadership: A Practical Guide for Ordinary Heroes. Prentice Hall • Nevicka et. al (2013) Uncertainty enhances the preference for narcissistic leaders. European Journal of Social Psychology
Application of theories to a relevant settings.
John Adair in the 1960s noted that the effective leaders met three sets of needs:- The needs of the task
The needs of the team undertaking the task
The needs of each individual within the team
He shifted the attention from describing the behaviour of the leader to understanding the needs of the situation in these three key areas .Each group, team and organisation has it own unique culture, made up as follows:-A leader needs to...
References: • Avolio B. et al (2009). Leadership: current theories, research and future direction. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 60: 421-49
• Binney G
• Nevicka et. al (2013) Uncertainty enhances the preference for narcissistic leaders. European Journal of Social Psychology
Application of theories to a relevant settings
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