Some of the theories of development and how the frameworks to support development can influence practice:
Jean Piaget (1896-1980)
Jean Piaget believed that intelligence is a process
that helps an organism adapt to its environment. His
“Cognitive-Developmental Theory” suggested four
major periods of cognitive development. Piaget’s
influence created a revolution in human development
theory. He proposed the existence of four major
stages, or “periods,” during which children and
adolescents are able to use symbols and to reason
in abstract ways. This was the most influential of
the six major theories in the 1970s and 1980s, and
dominated the study of child development.
claimed that humans are cognitive (concerned with acquisition of knowledge) beings. Individuals process information from the environment and this plays a major role in learning and human development. This is the essence of his “Social Learning Theory”. This theory modified the traditional learning theory developed by B. F. Skinner and others, which was based on ‘stimulus-response’ relationships. They thought that learning was no different among infants, children, adults, or even animals. Bandura’s approach is influential in the analysis of media violence on children and the treatment of problem behaviours and disorders.
Freud and Eriksson
Early experience and stages of development –
Sigmund Freud challenged prevailing notions of human
nature and human development. The proposed that
individuals are driven by motives and emotions of which
they are largely unaware. He believed that individuals
are shaped by their earliest experiences in life. This
“Psychodynamic Theory” includes concepts such as
the “Oedipus Complex” and Freud’s five stages of
psycho-sexual development. Freudian thinking is deeply
embedded in our culture and constantly influences our
view of human nature but his ideas are now widely
Gessell - Genetic and biological processes and developments – Arnold Gessell was a developmental psychologist. He believed that development was genetically determined, and that genetic abilities and characteristics unfolded alongside an individual’s biological maturation. His most important work involved the study of twins where one of the girls was trained and allowed to practise manipulative skills while the other twin was not. The experiment concluded that they both developed at the same rate regardless of the additional support given to one twin.
Maslow - Hierarchy of Needs is a theory in psychology that Abraham Maslow proposed in his 1943 paper A Theory of Human Motivation, which he subsequently ... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maslows_hierarchy_of_needs - en.wikipedia.org Theories relevant to the human growth and development and its effect on communication are that because they have communication difficulties,lack of sight or no sight,vocal or hearing skills the individual would not be able to understand or comrehend what is being communicated.....By adapting the way I communicate with individuals to suit their needs and level of understanding would enable the service user to participate in some if not all aspects of their daily lives, being aware of their reaction and what that could mean. Never assuming that they had no way of communicating because of their difficulties, but being aware that communication may be difficult but it is a two way process as as a support worker, it is my responsibility of the more able communicator in an interaction to recognise communication difficulties and find the approach that best suits the needs of the service user. Also to recognise communication breakdown and effect repair, which will require time, effort and sensitivity. Language differences and difficulties can affect individuals in many different ways, they can cause the omission of the individuals cultural preferences,the personal care they need/want, the types of food they preferred, opportunity to...
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