Theories of Crime Study Guide Final
2. Define criminology- “The study of the processes of making laws, breaking laws, and reacting towards the breaking of laws” 3. Define paradigm-competing theoretical perspectives 4. The scientific methods incorporates both theory and observation. Definitions of Crime (and who proposed each) a. Legalistic Tappan Defines crime as “an intentional act in violation of the criminal law (statutory and case law), committed without defense or excuse, and penalized by the state as a felony or misdemeanor” (Tappan, 1947:100). Excludes any behaviors that are not punished by law enforcement including behavior that is not criminalized, detected or reported.
b. modified legalistic Sutherland Definition is similar to Tappan’s legalistic definition, but suggests that crime is a behavior that causes injury to the State. Sutherland suggested that “an unlawful act is not defined as criminal by the fact that it is punished, but by the fact that it is punishable” c. normative Mannheim & Sellin Defined crime broadly as a violation of conduct norms. Recognizes that not all antisocial behaviors are going to be prohibited by legal code at all places, at all times.
d. new/critical Herman & Julia Schwendinger Broadest criminological conceptualization of crime and