theories of crime

Topics: Sociology, Criminology, Crime Pages: 7 (2399 words) Published: August 8, 2014

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction ……………………………………………………..1 Differential association theory………………..………………….2 Anomie theory……………………………………………………5 Conclusion……………………………………………………….11 References ………………………………………………………..13

INTRODUCTION
The crime rate is on the rise in Kenya some theories try to define these rising criminality in Kenya. Anomie theory and differential association theory best explain the rising criminality in Kenya like for example in Kenya many individuals are law abiding citizens this is according to Edwin Sutherland differential association theory. His theory gives priority to the power of social influences and learning experiences. Anomie theory refers to a situation in which cultural norms break down because of rapid change this is according to Durkheim. These 2 theories best explain the rising criminality in Kenya which has normally been due to common thinking that the rising criminality is mostly due to the wealth of the person while there are crimes committed by white collar including fraud and money laundering which are done by the higher in the society, for example people who live in Kibera are the same in likeliness to commit crime as the people who live in Muthaiga.

Differential Association Theory by Edwin Sutherland
Edwin Sutherland set out to develop a theory which would have the same characteristics as other scientific theories, namely, that "the conditions which are said to cause crime should be present when crime is present, and they should be absent when crime is absent." Sutherland recognized that while some types of crime are more prevalent in minority communities, many individuals in those communities are law-abiding. Similarly, among the powerful and privileged, some are lawbreakers; some are not. His theory is intended to discriminate at the individual level between those who become lawbreakers and those who do not, whatever their race, class, or ethnic background for example black rich Somali. His theory gives priority to the power of social influences and learning experiences and can be expressed in terms of a series of propositions, which I am going to condense as follows: 1. Criminal behavior is learned in interaction with other persons in a process of communication peer groups who communicate with each other 2. That learning takes place primarily in intimate personal groups and includes not only the techniques of committing crime but the motives, rationalizations, and attitudes which accompany crime. 3. Differential associations may vary in frequency, duration, priority, and intensity, and a person becomes delinquent because of an excess of definitions favorable to violation of law over definitions unfavorable to violation of law. 4. The learning process involves the same mechanisms whether a person is learning criminality or conformity. A person can learn criminality the same way a person learns a subject in school Thus it isn't a lack of social organization that characterizes communities and neighborhoods high in crime, but a differential social organization--a set of practices and cultural definitions that are at odds with the law. As Sutherland puts it: "In an area where the delinquency rate is high, a boy who is sociable, gregarious, active, and athletic is very likely to come in contact with other boys in the neighborhood, learn delinquent behavior from them, and become a gangster; the psychopathic boy who is isolated, introverted and inert may remain at home, not become acquainted with other boys in the neighborhood, and not become delinquent." Of course, it's not only the psychopaths who don't get out. In their book Growing up Poor, Kornblum and Williams learn to recognize a group of super-achievers that come from neighborhoods where deviant values predominate but whose parents manage to keep them encircled in a round of non street activities that centers around school, family, and church. As the first criminologist to give...

References: 2. Siegel L. (2000) criminology 7 edition Massachusetts wads worth Thomson learning
3. Sellers C.S., Akers R.L(2009) criminological theories 5 edition New York Oxford university press
4. Paranjape N.V. (2005) criminology 12 edition Delhi central law publications
5. Kornblum W., Williams T
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