Theories behind Frank Lucas
Harlem’s Drug kingpin
With Frank Lucas’ life we will be able to demonstrate and explain a few etiological theories starting with Ethnic succession Theory, differential association theory, and Social Disorganization theory. Before we begin I will explain what each Theory means, then we will be able to apply these theories into Frank Lucas’ life.
Ethnic succession theory has the idea that ethnic groups involve themselves in organized crime because of their obstacles towards the so called American dream (Bell, 1953, 1964; Ianni, 1974). Ethnic Succession Theory contends that most of the organized crime groups in North America aren’t based on ethnic foreign people bringing their criminal cultures or secret societies, but merely the result of minorities finding it very hard to settle down on this continent. Each immigrant group experiences obstacles in the North American society such as unemployment, lack of political power, and some discrimination. Some people react to these issues and turn to criminal activities to fit in the way they feel is the only way for a future. “Ethnic succession results when an ethnic or racial group experiences success in crime”. As time goes by and things become easier and more open to these ethnic immigrant groups, they end up depending less on crime and become more settled in the society and away from the crime. It doesn’t stop there, once that Ethnic group is out of the picture another group takes its place in the criminal activities hoping for the same ending. Really it’s just a repetitive society, even though they become successful and stop doing crime, another group is going to take its place. As long as there are obstacles for that ethnic immigration group, there will be reasons to join in criminal activities, to have the success they always wanted when coming to North America (Bell, 1964; Ianni, 1974).
Differential Association theory explains that a criminal behavior is not an impulsive reaction nor is it an instinctive response to situations of frustration (Sutherland, 1973). It comes when an individual is taught as the norm. In other words, if one individual is raised to respect and help other people, while another individual is taught to steal and pursuit criminal activities, for both individual it’s the norm to do what they do, not knowing differently. The community which one lives in can put a big impact on an individual’s life perspective, if criminal behavior and activities can be learned easily in a community; those individuals might give in, in the temptation of criminal behavior. As well the people being the most influence are children, they are more at risk at developing these kinds of behaviors due to their community, poverty, negative influences and family breakdowns. The more they are surrounded by these behaviors the more norm they think it is and the more prone they are to completely transform into criminal behavior (Kelly, 1987:19).
Social Disorganization theory explained a little in differential association theory; depends on the type of community the individual was raised in, for them the norm might be criminal behavior. These communities are environments where positive role models and positive norms are ineffective, they are substituted by strong traditions of gangs and organized crime, criminal offenders are most often well integrated in the community; these areas are communities that have major grounds of delinquent subcultures and easy entrance to organized crime (Kobrin, 1966). Shouldn’t it be easy to just change the community and clean it up to be more positive and crime free? Some communities are scared or based on attitudes and values that support delinquency and crime. Many of the adults in those communities influence the children in a life of crime, when those adults are gone the children only know of criminal behavior and it just becomes a vicious circle of criminal values and attitude. To be sure that this circle...
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