Theoretical Approaches to Intelligence

Topics: Intelligence, Psychometrics, Intelligence quotient Pages: 7 (1874 words) Published: July 6, 2013
Assignment 04
PYC480-7

Unique assignment number: 666361

Marcelle Labuschagne
3443-055-5

Group Tests of Intelligence3
Different Theoretical Approaches to Intelligence3
Theories Underlying Types of Testing4
Measuring Learning Potential5
Dynamic Assessment6
Different Approaches to Dynamic Assessment and the Measurement of Learning Potential7
Dynamic Assessment: The Psychometric Approach7
Deciding on an Experimental Design8
Bibliography9

Group Tests of Intelligence
Annually vast numbers of students who have just finished school submit an application for admission to tertiary institutions, as funding by government is determined by the quantity of students who pass; the institutions have a preference to admit students who will be successful and therefore admission testing programmes are often used [ (Foxtrot & Roodt, 2009, pp. 138,139) ]. Group tests are intended to access cognitive aptitudes that are applicable to academic accomplishment. Generally amalgamations of verbal and non-verbal subtests offer a total ability score. Yet some group measures comprise only of verbal or non-verbal content. The development of culture fair measures for instance concentrates on non-verbal measures of general intelligence [ (Foxtrot & Roodt, 2009, p. 139) ]. Different Theoretical Approaches to Intelligence

Defining Intelligence
To define intelligence has posed to be a problem as many theorists have their own definition and haven’t come to an agreement on how to define cognitive intelligence [ (Foxtrot & Roodt, 2009, p. 129) ] . The word intelligence comes from the Latin verb intelligere which is obtained from inter-legere implying to pick out or discriminate [ (Wikipedia) ]. A form of this verb, intellectus, became the medieval scientific name for understanding [ (Wikipedia) ]. Intelligence is unconstrained by particular training and customs which have been regarded as vital for human intelligence testing since the beginning of the 1900s. Charles Spearman suggested that there might be a general intelligence aspect related to all intellectual tasks, but its nature was never very apparent [ (Wolfram, 2002, p. 1178) ]. Intelligence includes culturally defined ways of thinking [ (Psychology Today) ], but is not limited to: * Abstract thought

* Understanding
* Self-awareness
* Communication
* Reasoning
* Learning
* Having emotional knowledge
* Retaining
* Planning
* Problem solving [ (Wikipedia) ].
Theories Underlying Types of Testing

Psychometric approach
A range of methods to test human intelligence have been adapted, the psychometric approach is particularly well-known, in addition to being the most studied and certainly the most commonly used in practical settings. Each of the theories has its origin in the differential; the main crux of this approach is the study and measurement of individual distinctions in psychological traits [ (2013, p. 48) ]. Statistical methods for instance correlational and particularly factor – analytic methods are intended to ascertain the fundamental basis of distinction among individuals. Research is focussed toward determining the formation of mental abilities, as interest is on unobservable traits [ (2013, p. 48) ]. Each theorist has contributed to the conclusions we make about the disposition of the underlying variables of intelligence [ (2013, p. 48) ]. Sternberg on the other hand takes to a great extent a wider opinion on the disposition of intelligence than most of his predecessors, in addition to suggesting certain mental mechanisms are necessary for intelligent behaviour, he furthermore stresses that intelligence requires an adaptation to the real-world setting [ (2013, p. 49) ]. For our group testing is taking place in a multicultural context Sternberg’s theory of triarchic theory of intelligence should be adequate as the theory comprises with three aspects of intelligence : * Componential...

Bibliography: Foxtrot, C., & Roodt, G. (2009). Introduction to Psychological Assessment in the South African Context. Cape Town: Oxford University Press.
Psychological Assessment. (2013). Tutorial Letter 103/0/2013 .
Psychology Today. (n.d.). Retrieved July 2013, from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/exploring-intelligence/201105/defiing-intelligencestep2
Van Ede, D. M. (1996). How to adapt a measuring instrument for use with various culture groups: a practical step-by-step introduction. SAJHE/SATHO Vol 10 No2 .
Wikipedia. (n.d.). Retrieved July 2, 2013, from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intelligence
Wolfram, S. (2002). Wolfram Science. Retrieved July 02, 2013, from Stephan Wolfram, A New Kind of Science: http://www.wolframscience.com/reference/notes/1178a
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