The Vital Capacity Test In Football Physical Education Essay Football has become a sport that interest by all population in this world. To play or become a good football player, the person must master many skills and have a healthy physical and mental. Football players also must combine speed, strength, agility, power, and endurance as basic qualities before the individual skills inherent to the playing of soccer can be utilized and depend on the position such as defense, strikers, midfielder and goal keeper. The understanding of the physical and the mental demands of the sport will enable a more scientific approach to the training of soccer players by (Bell and Rhodes 1975; Caru et. al. 1970; Fardy 1969). Football is one of the sports that need high intensity of workload or physical activity, for example the combination of walk and repeated sprints need sufficient recovery between activity. Stated by (Nicks et. al. 2006) and Romer et.al. So the player must have strong muscles, high muscular endurance, have strong core and have high level of aerobic capacity because the football game are played for 90 minutes. So the training must contain high aerobic training to improve cardiovascular and pulmonary functions so the athlete can cope with the sport. Physiological assessment of athletes can provide an opportunity to examine or test the adaptation to specific types of exercises and training. These adaptations can be valuable to the clinician, coaches and athletes themselves. For example, lab test that can be proceed to examine the adaptation to specific types of exercises and training. To test the adaptation to the lung we can use pulmonary functions test to examine the effectiveness of lung muscles functioning, to check the vital capacity and to estimate the lung volumes. The function of the lung is to deliver O2 to gas exchanged surface and exhaust CO2 to atmosphere. To achieve this with brain functioning normally, breath begins with contraction of inspiratory muscle enlarging the thorax, lowering intrathoracic and pleural pressures, enlarging the alveoli and airways, expanding the alveolar gas so reducing its pressure below atmospheric. Air at atmospheric pressure must flow into the thorax where it is conducted to, and diffuses, out into the alveoli. The carriage of air through the airways depends on the patency of the tube as well as on the consistency of the lung and the power of the respiratory muscles. At any one moment approximately 100ml of desaturated blood, with a strong affinity for O2, is spread over an area of 70 square meters( area of pulmonary capillary bed ) separated from air by a membrane 0.2 micron thick. Oxygen from alveolar air diffuses rapidly across the alveolar capillary membrane and is finally chemically combined with hemoglobin molecules within the circulating red blood cells (RBC), CO2 diffuses into opposite direction and is eliminated in expired gas. The Vital capacity test is one of the oldest and most common respiratory tests. The measurement of vital capacity (VC) simply requires that an individual blow as large a breath of air as possible into a spirometer. Thus, the person expels three of the four components of the total lung volume when performing the vital test. There are inspiratory reserve volume (IRV), tidal volume (TV) and expiratory reserve volume (ERV). It provides an indirect indication of the size of the lung, although it is not a complete measure of the entire lung size because it does not account for residual volume. In general facts, vital capacity relate to three uncontrolled characteristics which are age, stature and gender.
Lung function measurements also may be made for several reasons. They are useful in describing the lung for diagnostic purpose and subsequently in monitoring change. Accuracy and consistency are therefore very important, and a convention exists for the procedure of measurement and expression of result. In general, a measurement will only be accepted after...
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