The Tweentieth Century and

Topics: Music, Jazz, Twelve-tone technique Pages: 13 (3093 words) Published: August 23, 2010
Chapter 1: Musical Styles
* Glissando
* Rapid slide up or down a scale
* Tone Cluster
* Chord made up of tones only a half step or a whole step apart, used in twentieth-century music. * Bitonality
* Approach to pitch organization using two keys at one time, often found in twentieth century music. * Polychord
* Combination of two chords sounded at the same tine, used in twentieth century music. * Polytonality
* Approach to pitch organization using two or more keys at one time, often found in twentieth century music. * Atonality
* Absence of tonality, or key, characteristic of much twentieth century music. * Polyrhythm
* Use of two or more contrasting and independent rhythms at the same time, often found in twentieth century music and the music of sub-Saharan Africa. * Ostinato
* Motive or phrase that is repeated persistently at the same pitch, used in twentieth century music to stabilize a group of pitches. * Fourth chord
* Chord in which the tones are a fourth apart, instead of a third, used in twentieth century music. Using the websites provided above, answer the following questions: Select three modern composers of your choice and answer the following questions concerning their background and music: * What social and or political events did the artist witness during his or her lifetime? * How did these events influence their philosophy and composition? * How did the mass media and consumer culture influence the dissemination of their work? * In what ways is free jazz similar to modern classical composition? How does it depart from traditional jazz? * sfksdj

Chapter 2: Music and Musicians in Society
* Mass media was used as a form of propaganda in both world wars. What role did music play in propaganda efforts? * How did the world wars affect the lives of musicians in Europe and America? * Compare the challenges facing modern composers in the 20th century to those of past eras. * Give evidence of shifting attitudes towards race, class and gender in the musical culture of the 20th century. How does this compare to past eras? * What differences in attitude towards race, class and gender are evident in the musical culture of the 20th century? How does this compare to past eras? * kjdfjsl

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Chapter 3: Impressionism and Symbolism
* Describe the life and works of three artists and writers from the Impressionist period. * What philosophies and approaches did they share with musicians? * What historic factors lead to such a cohesive movement in art, literature and music? * Dkfsk’

Chapter 4: Claude Debussy

Listen to Debussy’s Prelude a` L`Apres-midi d`un Faune then indicate the best answer for each of the following questions: * This music, after the poem by Mallarme, refers to the thoughts and dreams of a pagan forest creature * True

* The listener can hear the entire orchestra throughout this musical work. * False
* The entire orchestra only rarely can be heard at one time * The three sections of this work can be represented as ABC * False
* This work is in ABA form
* An important difference between the first A section and the second A section is tone color * True
* This work has been described as a quiet revolution in music * True
* Impressionism
* Musical style (flourished 1890-1920) which stresses tone color, atmosphere, and fluidity, typical of Debussy. * Pentatonic scale
* Scale made up of five different tones, used in folk music and music of the Far East. * Whole-tone scale
* Scale made up of six different tones, each a whole step away from the next, which conveys no definite sense of tonality; often found in the music of Debussy and his followers. * Where was this artist born and educated?

* Who were his contemporaries?
* What were his most important musical...
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