The Travel and Tourism Sector
14th November 2012
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
Task 1: The history and structure of the travel and tourism sector
Task 2: The influence of local and national governments and international agencies on the travel and tourism sector
Task 3: The implications of political change
Task 4: Investigate the effects of supply and demand on the travel and tourism sector
Task 5: Describe the positive and negative impacts of tourism
What was once a movement known mostly for religious reasons, tourism has grown in to a major economic sector and is now one of the worlds largest industries. Tourism is a valued activity globally and provides an important and vital source of income and employment for many countries.
In this paper I have looked at the evolution of tourism over the decades and the structure as we see it today. I discuss how the governments and agencies have an influence over travel and tourism including political implications, how supply and demand affects the sector, and the impacts which tourism inflicts socially, environmentally and economically.
Task 1 – The history and structure of the travel and tourism sector
Tourism has been around for many years, ever since people have had some form of transport such as boats or chariots (later changing to horse-drawn wagons), which allowed people to move around (Sharpley, 1999a).
The history of tourism can be seen all over the world. Dating back to the Egyptian and roman times, evidence has been found in Egypt where the Egyptians would visit the pyramids either for religious purposes or for curiosity and also for leisure; this can be seen in markings in the pyramids themselves.
From then came Pilgrimages which were a movement mostly for religious reasons, but also used by people who would take opportunities to join ships heading to other destinations in order to bring back souvenirs or even strike up deals with the local banks and get credit.
Following this, the Grand Tour was established which aristocrats would embark on in Europe. Seen as an educational experience as well as a trip for pleasure, the men would often spend a number of years in other countries studying at universities. In those days tourism was seen as a way to explore the world and learn about other cultures rather than lie on a beach and get a suntan.
In the 18th century internal passports were introduced in France which were required in order to move from one town to the next. Similarly in the USA an internal passport was needed to travel between states. In 1548 Britain introduced passports which were chargeable and only afforded by the wealthy. It was standard practice for passports to be issued by the state but in the late 18th century it became impossible for the Foreign Secretary alone to continue doing this due to such a high number of people wanting to travel.
After the First World War passports had been widely introduced making travel abroad far easier, and Europe became a wealthy continent again. Steam ships, bicycles and later on motor vehicles all played a big part in the growth of tourism allowing tourists to eventually have an independent holiday which saw a decline in the use of railways. This independent travel was aided by caravans and camping.
In the early 18th century a doctor based in Brighton on the south coast of the UK declared that salt water could cure diseases and encouraged people to drink and bathe in salt water (Wikipedia, 2012a) This led to Brighton being known as a health resort, which resulted in an increase in the number of visitors who hoped the water would cure any ailments they may have had. Soon enough people were taking trips to seaside destinations all around the country.
References: Cooper, C. Fletcher, J. Gilbert, D. Shepherd, R. Wanhill, S., 2008a. Tourism: Principles and Practice. 4th ed. Harlow: Pearson Education. 4:97-102
Cooper, C. Fletcher, J. Gilbert, D. Shepherd, R. Wanhill, S., 2008c. Tourism: Principles and Practice. 4th ed. Harlow: Pearson Education. 6:161
Mathieson, A. and Wall, G., 1982. Tourism: Economic, physical, and social impact. London: Longman
Poseidon Undersea Resorts (2006) The Resort http://www.poseidonresorts.com/poseidon_main.html (Accessed 2nd October 2012)
Presidency Republic of Colombia (2012), Colombia is Passion http://wsp.presidencia.gov.co/asiescolombia/colombia_en.html (Accessed: 14th October 2012)
Sharpley. R., 1999b. Tourism, Tourists and Society. 2nd ed. Cambridgeshire: Elm Publications. 5:134
The Hotel Guru (2007) Roman Baths and Pump Room http://www.hotelguru.co.uk/bath.html (Accessed 1st October 2012)
The Lake District (2012) Volunteering http://www.lakedistrict.gov.uk/caringfor/volunteering (Accessed 8th October)
Wikipedia (2012a) Brighton http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brighton#History (Accessed: 1st October 2012)
Wikipedia (2012b), Corruption in Colombia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corruption_in_Colombia (Accessed: 14th October 2012)
World Tourism Organisation UNWTO (2012), About UNWTO – What We Do http://dtxtq4w60xqpw.cloudfront.net/sites/all/files/docpdf/aboutunwto.pdf
(Accessed: 12th October 2012)
WWF (2012) Arctic Tourism: What is Ecotourism? http://wwf.panda.org/what_we_do/where_we_work/arctic/what_we_do/tourism/#tourists (Accessed: 14th October 2012)
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