The Three Theoretical Approaches
In this essay I have looked at the three theoretical approaches, The Person Centred, The Psychodynamic and The Cognitive Behaviourist approaches. I have done this through the theoretical knowledge gained in class and through my own personal research, triad/diad practice and my personal life and experiences and how they relate to the theory.
I have taken each theory, and the knowledge I have gained, and how this relates to me in my own life. I have looked at the triad/diad practice I have undertaken for each and given examples of how I have demonstrated theory through the use of skill, also how this contributed to the process of the counsellor/client relationship.
The Person-centred Approach
The Person-Centred Approach was developed by the psychologist Dr Carl Rogers. It’s a humanistic, non-directive model of therapy, in which the therapist facilitates the client in the here and now working through their issues by walking with them. In Roger’s theory he believed that there were six conditions that are necessary for therapeutic change to take place. This includes The Three Core Conditions: • Congruence is being a genuine whole person who is comfortable with their own personal experiences, positive and negative. • Empathy, to sense the client’s private world and walk along side them through their issues, without over identifying and making the session about the counsellor. • Unconditional Positive Regard, no conditions of acceptance, being as open to the negative aspect of the client as the positive. There is also the contract, developed between the client and the counsellor. The client should be incongruent and the counsellor should be congruent. The core conditions are said to be a way of being and can be demonstrated by the counsellor through the use of skills such as: • Paraphrasing is when the counsellor relays spoken content back to the client in their own words, or the counsellors to give a different or better perspective. • Reflecting is when the counsellor senses the emotions behind spoken content and relays them back to the client. • Summarising is when the counsellor takes all the threads of the session at any point and puts them all together; it is used to assist the client in making connections. • Silence is used to assist reflection on content and that may have been experienced during the session. Giving the client time to think, process feelings and compose themselves and find the words to go on. It can be uncomfortable, but being able to sit with it will benefit the process. • Minimal encouragers are used when the client is identifying their concerns, they can be as simple as a nod of the head to show that the counsellor is following what has been said, or simple yes, and, then, or even repeating a simple phrase. • Open questions are used to help the client open up and explore there issues. These are question that can not be answered with a simple yes or no. by the way that the question is worded the counsellor can facilitate the client in exploring aspects of there issues from a deeper or new prospective, in the hope of bringing clarity. • Focusing is a very important part of the counselling process. Where in most settings there are limitations on time and duration the counsellor need to structure the sessions into a beginning where the introductions/greeting are done and when the contract can be set and can be amended, also the client will be able to identify their concerns. The middle of the session is where the issues are explored with demonstration of theory by the use of skills. The ending is when the counsellor will whine down the session by informing the client that time is coming to an end and give them enough time to prepare for this and if there is anything that they need to say they will have the time to do so, therefore the client is not left hanging or in a bad place. With...
Milne. Aileen., (2003), Teach Yourself Counselling, London, Hodder Education
Please join StudyMode to read the full document