1. The summary of Geert Hofstede
The text refers to the study of culture in the environment of organization. Especially how culturally different participant can make an constructive and efficient intercultural dialogue. At the beginning of the publication Geert Hofstede points attention to the example which shows how different cultural background influences our way of thinking and acting. Moreover, autor deals with the notion of culture and its connection to the mental programming. He describes culture in wider and narrower sense by stating that culture in wider sense deals with much more fundamental human processes than culture in narrower sense. According to him this culture is the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes members of one group of people from another. Furthermore, Hofstede developes a term of mental programming by stating that a persons behaviour is only partially predetermined by their mental programs. Hofstede explains the term human nature as a common feature which all people. According to him it represents a universal level in one´s mental software. Describing the personality of an individual we can see a hierarchical structure which he designed as a pyramid with three levels: Human nature, Culture and Personality. This cathegorization helps him in further development of the topic into symbols, heroes, rituals and values. He worked through various levels of culture: national, regional, gender, generation, social class or organizational level. Pointing to national differences Hofstede deals with the history of a mankind starting with the early settlement, the empires evolution leading to the modern urbanization. With reference to current nations Hofstede names some strong forces towards further integration: common language, mass media, national education system, national army, national political system, national representation in sports events or a national market for certain skills, products and services. Based on this,...
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