A Concise Guide for High School and University PrepPRIVATE 1. HEADER, TITLE AND INTRODUCTION
-put your last name plus the page number in the top right corner of every page of the essay (this is the header)
-on the line below the header, put (1) your full name, (2) your teachers name, (3) the course name and number and (4) the date in list form down the left side of the page, then put the title of the essay centred and underlined on the line below (remember to double-space everything) Anybody 1 Pat Anybody Ms. L. Wiles ENG 7Jc 16 March 2001 The Journey in Experience in Ross Ones a Heifer
- the essay starts with a first few sentences which are a general, interesting lead-in to the topic
As a writer of short stories, Sinclair Ross has a reputation for accurately depicting a particular time and placeSaskatchewan during the years of the Great Depression. But the best of Ross stories are something more than mere slices of history or patches of local colour. While maintaining their strong sense of time and place, Ross stories present the reader with universal truths about human experience. Ones a Heifer, for example, is more than just a story about the incredible poverty that Saskatchewan farming people had to endure throughout the 1930s.
- last sentence in introductory paragraph is the THESIS statement, which is the main point/idea of the essay plus three illustrations. For example, in this essay, the thesis is The metaphorical passage from innocence to some degree of experience in the story is conveyed by means of an extraordinary journey that the boy takes across a bleak and frozen stretch of Saskatchewan prairie, through a kind of hell, from which he emerges having taken his first hesitant steps into the adult world.
- this thesis implies THREE ways in which the story reflects the motif of the journey (which become THREE TOPICS for each of the THREE BODY PARAGRAPHS) (1) the extraordinary nature of the trip across a bleak and frozen stretch...
Cited: Campbell, Joseph. The Hero with a Thousand Faces. New York World, 1949. Ross, Sinclair. Ones a Heifer. Great Canadian Short Stories. Ed. E. J. Sheppard. Toronto Fictional, 2001. 96-106. 7. STYLE FOR QUOTATIONS WITHIN YOUR ESSAY - when quoting from books in your essay, or even when referring to an idea from a book, after the quote but before the period at the end of the sentence put the authors last name and the page number in brackets Rather like a knight arming himself for battle, the boy arms himself against the cold using the sheepskin coat and two suits of underwear (Ross 98). If it is a poem you are referring to, use the line number (Eliot 6-10). If you quote more than one line of poetry, make sure to put / between the lines. If it is a Shakespearean play you are referring to, use act, scene and line numbers with periods between them (2.4.112-115 for act 2, scene 4, lines 112 to 115). Again, make sure you put / between lines of poetry in Shakespeares plays (but not lines of prose) - for quotes which are more than four lines, you must double indent the whole quote from the left side of the page, end the quote with appropriate punctuation, and then put last name and page number/line number in brackets. In this case of quotes which are more than four lines, no quotation marks or / between lines of poetry are necessary (The rest of the paragraph precedes this sentence.) The poem is rich in evocative detail It was winter. It got dark early. The waiting room was full of grown-up people, arctics and overcoats, lamps and magazines. (Bishop 6-10) 8. STYLE FOR WORKS CITED (AT THE END OF YOUR ESSAY) - the works cited are always in alphabetical order by author. Note that for each work, each line after the first is indented - when making your list of works cited, most often you will need to consider (1) authors name, (2) title, (3) city where the book was published, (4) publishers name, (5) year of publication, and possibly (6) editors or translators name and (7) page numbers. Titles of short works (poems, songs, short stories, articles) are put in quotes, titles of long works (books, CDs, plays, websites) are underlined or italicized. What order you put this information in depends on what type of source you have. Some common examples are listed below, but refer to HYPERLINK http//webster.commnet.edu/mla.htm http//webster.commnet.edu/mla.htm for a more complete list, as well as a lot more possible requirements for style in scholarly essays. A book by a single author Schmoe, Joe. Everything You Always Wanted to Know About Literature But Forgot to Ask Before the Test. New York Faber, 1986. A book by two authors Schmoe, Joe, and Jane Doe. Everything You Always Wanted to Know About Literature But Forgot to Ask Before the Retest. New York Routledge, 1988. A work in an anthology (book containing works by different authors with an editor) Schmoe, Joe. Literature Aint it Nice. Great Essays by Really Great Guys. Ed. Hugh Jas. New York Penguin, 1999. An article in a reference book (note the number of volumes if there is more than one) Ulrich, Lars. Motorhead. Encyclopaedia Metallica. Ed. James Hetfield. 4 vols. San Francisco Dell, 1998. An introduction, preface, foreword, or afterword (note pages numbers are last) Allen, Woody. Introduction. Everything You Always Wanted to Know About Literature But Forgot to Ask Before the Test. By Joe Schmoe. New York Faber, 1986. iii-liv. An article in a newspaper or magazine (note page numbers are last) York, Geoffrey. Northern Resistance in Afghanistan Prefer Miracle Whip Over Mayonnaise. New York Times. 30 Dec. 2001 A1. An article in a scholarly journal (volume 2, issue 1 is written 2.1 and page numbers are after the year) Serious, I. M. The Politics of Politics in the University The Politicking Time Bomb. The Journal of Political Jargon. 2.1 (2000) 85-207. CD-ROM (note version number) Jeeze, Louise. Cheese and Macaroni. Dictionary of the Worlds Greatest Recipes. Vers. 1.1. CD- ROM. Toronto Quanta, 2001. Online database or website (if you cant find some of this information, give what is available) Webhead, Fred. Why Creed Kicks and Staind Bites in About 15,000 Words. Rawk Tawk Online. Ed. Ziggy Stardust. Vers. 9.9. U of California, Berkeley. 22 Nov. 2001. HYPERLINK http//www.rawktawk.org.edu.htm/alt.html.net.ucb.too.many.letters.and.dots.com http//www.rawktawk.org.edu.htm/alt.html.net.ucb.too.many.letters.and.dots.com. 9. SOME BASIC RULES FOR ESSAY WRITING A. Line spacing - double space the entire essay. Never put an extra space between paragraphs. Press Tab to indent at the start of paragraphs. Press Enter only when you finish a paragraph since Word will start a new line for you when you get to the end of the page. B. White space - leave 3 cm left, right, top and bottom margins around your page your teacher needs a lot of space for writing comments When typing, one normally leaves a single space between words, after commas and before and after dashes, but two spaces after a sentence (semi-colon, colon, period, exclamation mark, and question mark). Hyphens and apostrophes get no spaces before or after. Sometimes, the characters in Hamlet deal with complicated philosophical questions. As Hamlet himself says, To be or not to be, that is the question (III.i.56). Try to keep quotations relatively short. When quoting a text, there should be a careful interplay between the authors words and your personal ideas/insight. Please see Style for Quotations Within Your Essay above. If it is necessary to either change a word or add extra words when quoting from a text, use square brackets to indicate that these are your own words. Remember punctuation (periods, commas, exclamation points, question marks, etc.) usually goes INSIDE quotation marks, but most times, punctuation to end the sentence with the quote will come after your citation (authors last name, page number, line number, and so on). For example, Hamlet says, To be or not to be, that is the question (3.1.56). Sometimes when quoting a passage, for certain reasons you may wish to omit some words or sentences that are in the original text. This necessitates the use of either 3 dots (...) or the use of 4 dots (....), depending on whether only a few words are left out, or whether more than one sentence is omitted. When it is necessary to put a quotation within a quotation, use single quotes for the quotation within, like so When we least expect it, he quotes Hamlet as he marches into the room muttering To be or not to be, that is the question (Shakey 56). E. Apostrophes - Use apostrophes only to indicate missing letters or number, contractions, or possessive adjectives e.g., Ross story, the boys journey, 1930s, 90s, he is in his 20s. Remember that its does not take an apostrophe for the possessive (e.g., the doll is broken its head fell off), only for the contraction its warm outside. Similarly, everyones and ones do not need an apostrophe for the possessive, (as in everyones idea of fun is a party), only for the contraction everyones going). G. Numbers - Spell out numbers one to nine and write numerals for numbers over ten. You should generally use numerals for dates, times, money and measurements however 12 oclock, 5, 3 p.m., 3 cm, Saturday, November 24, 2001, 3 BC, etc. When the baby bear tastes his porridge, It is just right (Southey 45). page arabic2
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