Sources for the period
THE SPARTAN HEGEMONY (404BC TO 371BC)
Sparta’s role at the end of the Peloponnesian war:
Sparta had promised Persia the Ionian cities for its help in defeating Athens. This was a traitorous bargain, which subjected Ionian Greeks to Persian rule, and negated the victories of the Persian wars Sparta suppressed democracies within the Greek city-states and replaced these with oligarchies. This was done with force Lysander, a Spartan, was the hero of the Peloponnesian war. He planted a Spartan governor, or harmost, in the democratic cities and supported them with a garrison Spartan rule was soon hated by garrisoned states. Unfortunately for Lysander, he also has his own political opponents in Sparta, who conspired against him. Harmost’s ruled with a local decarchy (local group of 10 oligarchs) The Athenian navy had ben practically destroyed
Politically, the Board of Thirty in Athens organized an oligarchic government. The board of thirty behaved oppressively, authorizing arrests, executions, confiscations of property and the execution of opponents in Athens The persecuted and pro-democratic Athenian exiles went to Thebes. There they planned attacks on Attica and eventually seized Piraeus, the harbor of Athens Lysander then led the assault on the Athenian invaders to support the board of thirty. Conspiracy in Sparta overthrew his command, however, Pausanias replaced Lysander and reached a settlement with the rebels By this settlement, the exiles were allowed to return to Athens and democracy was restored to Athens in 403BC The Spartan commitment to hand over the Ionian cities to Persia was of concern to other Greek city-states. There was some hope with the death of Darius II in 404BC. His son, Artaxerxes II succeeded him. The younger son, Cyrus, was ambitious and asked for Spartan assistance to overthrow his brother Sparta realized the potential in the situation: by helping Cyrus, Sparta might be rewarded. If successful. Persia might have relinquished its rule in Ionia The Battle of Cunaxa, 401BC: Sparta committed 700 hoplites to Cyrus’ war against Artaxerxes II. A large proportion of the total forces of 10,000 were Greek mercenaries, Cyrus was killed at Cunaxa in 400BC and Artaxerxes II was victorious. The Greeks were not defeated and they made an amazing retreat back to Greece, led by the poet and general, Xenophon This retreat was successfully accomplished, in spite of the odds, and recorded by Xenophon. The legacy was the suspicion that perhaps Persia could be defeated on its own territory after all Tissaphernes (local governor of Persia) was treacherous and untrustworthy. He planned to conquer the Ionian Greek cities. Sparta sent an expedition to assist the Ionian cities against him There were two expeditions. The first in 399BC under Thibron and then Dercyllidus was not successful. King Agesilaus led a more successful campaign in 396BC, Lysander was then back in favor in Sparta and had helped Agesilaus succeed to the Spartan throne Tissaphernes was defeated near Sardis in 395BC, recalled to Persia and then executed Another attempt at an anti-Spartan alliance made through Timocrates. He was instructed by Persia to bribe Greek city-states to revolt against Sparta. Athens and Thebes were grateful of the chance to rebel. Corinth and Argos were also receptive Thebes then confronted Sparta overs a dispute involving Phocis, and Lysander was sent to subdue Thebans. He was killed at the Battle of Haliartus and Pausanias, his colleague, was exiled for leaving Thebes without attacking the city and punishing its people
Sparta at war with Persia
During the Peloponnesian war, Sparta had received golf from Persia via Cyrus, youngest son of Persian king and in return Sparta betrayed the Ionian Greeks, promising them to Persia after winning the war Cyrus father, Darius II, the Persian king had died and Cyrus’ brother Artaxerxes II assumed the throne. Cyrus was a very ambitious man and planned to...
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