Describe the structure and function of the skeleton system’s two distinct are – Axial System and Appendicular skeleton.
The axial skeleton is the portion of the human skeleton that consists of the bones of the head and trunk of an organism. In the human body, it consists of 80 bones and is composed of – 29 bones in the head - (8 cranial and 14 facial bones) and then also 7 associated bones (6 auditory ossicles and the Hyoid Bone) 25 bones of the thorax - (the sternum and 24 ribs)
26 bones in the vertebral column (24 vertebrae, the sacrum and the coccyx.
Appendicular skeleton - the part of the skeleton that includes the pectoral girdle and the pelvic girdle and the upper and lower limbs limb - one of the jointed appendages of an animal used for locomotion or grasping: arm; leg; wing; flipper skeletal structure - any structure created by the skeleton of an organism pectoral girdle - a skeletal support to which the forelimbs of vertebrates are attached endoskeleton - the internal skeleton; bony and cartilaginous structure (especially of vertebrates) pelvic arch, pelvic girdle, pelvis, hip - the structure of the vertebrate skeleton supporting the lower limbs in humans and the hind limbs or corresponding parts in other vertebrates
The Skelton functions
Support – bones helps to stabilise and support the framework of the body, as most muscle are attached. •
Protection – bones helps to protect internal tissues and organs, for example the skull protects the brain and the rib cage protects the lungs. •
Movement – bones enable movement to happen as the skeleton is jointed. Bones end joints so the shape of the bones can dictate how we move. •
Blood Protection – Bones produce red blood cells in the bone marrow. •
Mineral storage – Bone helps to store minerals such as calcium, phosphorus, sodium and potassium. Different types of joint and movement
A joint is the when two or more joint comes together. A purpose of a joint is to allow the bones to move. Immovable – fused joints of the skull that provide no movement. Slightly Movable – between each vertebra when a small range of movement occurs. Freely Movable – at the knee, a hinge joint, where a large amount of movement occurs Synovial joints
•Ball and socket joints, like your hip and shoulder joints, are the most mobile type of joint in the human body. They allow you to swing your arms and legs in many different directions. •Hinge joints, like in your knee and elbow, enable movement similar to the opening and closing of a hinged door. •The pivot joint in your neck allows you to turn your head from side to side.
Triceps extend the arm at the elbow Press-up, throwing a javelin. Biceps flex the arm at the elbow Pull-up, drawing a bow in archery. Deltoids Move the arm in all directions at the shoulder bowling a cricket ball. Pectorals adduct the arm at the shoulder Forehand drive in tennis. Trapezius Hold the shoulders in place, move head back and sideways holding head up in rugby scrum. Gluteal Adduct and extend leg at the hips Pulling back leg before kicking a ball. Quadriceps Extend the leg at the knee kicking a ball jumping upwards. Hamstrings flex the leg at the knee bending knee before kicking a ball. Gastrocnemius Pointing the toes, help to flex the knee running. Latissimus dorsi Adduct and extend the arm at the shoulder Butterfly stroke in swimming. Abdominals flex the trunk across the stomach pulling the body down when hurdling.
The bodily system that is composed of skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscle tissue and functions in movement of the body or of materials through the body, maintenance of posture, and heat production. Fiber Types
Muscle fiber types can be broken down into two main types:
slow twitch (Type I) muscle fibers
Fast twitch (Type II) muscle fibers.
Fast twitch fibers can be further categorized into Type IIa and Type IIb...
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