The Skeletal System

Topics: Skeletal system, Synovial joint, Bone Pages: 5 (1124 words) Published: October 16, 2014
The skeleton is designed in such a way that the delicate
parts of the body are protected. These parts are major organs, the brain is protected by the skull, the lungs and heart are protected by the ribs and the vertical column protects the spinal cord. For example you will see this happen in many sports such as boxing, the skull protects the brain from impact of a punch during a fight.

Support/ Shape: The skeletal system gives the human body structure. It supports the internal organs that are held within the body in a network of tissue. Bones give us form. In sports support and shape are also used for example in a rugby scum, to body needs to be placed in such a way to keep the back aligned.

Movement/ Attachment: The skeleton is jointed to allow movement. A joint is an articulation of two or more connecting bones, providing us with either stability or movement. Muscles are attached to our bones by tendons, and ligaments attach bone to bone. Movement is very important to any sports it allows us to make the certain movements needed to succeed. For example when striking the ball in football, a range of muscles and bones work together to allow for this movement. Blood Cell Production: Both red and white blood cells are produced in the bone marrow. The bones also store minerals for other functions. The Skeleton:

The human skeleton consists of 206 bones. Humans are actually born with more bones (about 300), but many fuse together as a child grows up. These bones support the body and allow movement.
The Sections of The Skeleton:
The skeleton is divided into two sections the axial and appendicular skeleton.

Axial Appendicular

Axial: The bones of the skeleton which form the main axis

or core of the body. Their main function is to support.

Includes: vertebral column, skull, pelvis, ribs and sternum

Appendicular: The bones of the skeleton which include the

appendages of the limbs together with the girdles

those join onto the axial skeleton. Their main

function is to allow movement.

Includes: arms, shoulder girdle, legs and the hip girdle.

The Vertebral Column:

* The adult vertebral (spinal) column consists of 26 bones that are grouped as follows:
cervical- vertebrae in the neck, allow head to bend, nod
etc
thoracic- vertebrae that articulate with the 12 pairs
of ribs
lumbar- vertebrae of the lower back,
sacrum- fused to form the pelvic girdle support the legs
coccyx – fused together forming the tailbone
* Intervertebral discs are located between adjacent vertebrae. These fibrocartilage discs form strong joints and absorb spinal
compression shock.
Joints
There are three types of joints these are:

* Fibrous

* Cartilaginous

* Synovial

Fibrous or Fixed Joint-

A fibrous or fixed joint has no movement at all. Tough fibrous tissue lies between the ends of the bone, which are dove tailed together. For example the sutures between the bones in the skull.
Cartilaginous Joint (slightly moveable)
A cartilaginous joint allows some slight movement. The ends of bones are covered in articular or hyaline cartilage, separated by pads of white fibrocartilage. Slight Movement is made possible because the pads of cartilage compress. In addition these pads act as shock absorbers. For example the intervertabal discs in the spine.

Synovial Joint (freely moving)-

A synovial joint is a freely moving joint and is characterized by the presence of joint capsule and cavity. The type of joint is subdivided according to movement possibilities, which are dictated by the bony surfaces that form the joint. For example cartilage that reduce fiction in the knee joint.

There are different types of synovial joints that allow for different types of movement, they include:

* Ball and Socket

* Pivot

* Condyloid

* Hinge

* Saddle

Ball and Socket Joint-

The almost hemispherical surface of one bone fits into a...
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