Written language is relatively more complex than spoken language. Written language has longer words,
It is lexically more dense and it has a more varied vocabulary. It uses more noun-based phrases than verb-based phrases.
Written texts are shorter and the language has more grammatical complexity, including more subordinate clauses and more passives. Formality
Academic writing is relatively formal, which means that in an essay you should avoid: Colloquial words and expressions.
Contractions, can’t. wouldn’t.
Slang . I googled him.
Idiomatic language e.g. We cooking on gas.
Phrasal verbs e.g. pick up, look into.
Personal pronouns I, you (except in reflective writing, lab reports and descriptive writing). Objectivity
Written language is in general objective rather than personal. It therefore has fewer words that refer to the writer or the reader. This means that the main emphasis should be on the information that you want to give and the arguments you want to make, rather than you. Your arguments should also show balance and both sides of .the issue. Explicitness
Academic writing is explicit about the relationships int he text. Furthermore, it is the responsibility of the writer in English to make it clear to the reader how the various parts of the text are related. These connections can be made explicit by the use of different signalling words. (PEE Point, example, empirical evidence.) Hedging
In any kind of academic writing you do, it is necessary to make decisions about your stance on a particular subject, or the strength of the claims you are making. Different subjects prefer to do this in different ways. Using verbs such as might/may/could and reporting verbs gives extra detail/protection of your position. Responsibility
In academic writing you must be responsible for, and must be able to provide evidence and justification for, any claims you make. You are also responsible for demonstrating an understanding of any source texts you use.