The Scientific Revolution Enlightenment

Topics: René Descartes, Scientific method, Isaac Newton Pages: 7 (2370 words) Published: April 15, 2015
Scientific Revolution

Aristotle and Claudius Ptolemy
16th century science was based on their conclusions
Geocentric model: Earth is motion less other planets revolve around it Epicycles- Plotlemy’s idea circles within circles
Crystalline spheres: heavens are made of a weightless substance allowing them to move Medieval thinkiners used Aristotle and Ptolemy ideology into a Christian framework Thomas Aquinas uses Unmoved Mover concept to confirm G-d’s existence Medieval thinkers believed their hypothesis but were unsure as to why the earth was in the center, salvation can only occur on earth so g-d placed it there—one train of thought Mathermatics and science became the answers to solving Earth’s mysteries Niccolaus Copernicus (1473- 1543)

Heliocentric model: sun in center, circular (epicycle) orbit around On the Revolution of the Heavenly Spheres: theory published 1543 Critics disagree stating it is un-christian and illogical
Disagreed with their theology main leaders against it: martin luther, john calvin 1`If corp. correct church and bible are wrong
new direction of thinking, this is only a theory, does not have mathematical tools to prove this idea Tycho Brahe (1546- 1601)
Danish astronomer
Does not have a telescope but has a lab and finds very precise data 1572- discovers new star
1577- discovers comet
Johannes Kepler (1571- 1630)
Assistant to TB
New Astronomy (1609)
Laws of Planetary Motion
1: elipptical orbits
2: speed of planet in larger orbit is slower - speed of planet in smaller orbit faster 3: farther from the sun slower orbit
Keplers law provide the foundations of Newton’s Laws of Gravity Galileo Galilei (1564- 1642)
First to use the telescope: support for heliocentric theory Bible unreliable source
Dialogue on Two Chief Systems of the World (1632) - index of prohibited books: -earth rotates on an axis and earth revolves around the sun Condemned by Catholic Church—house arrest
Pendelum, principles of inertia. discovers objects of different weight fall at the same speed By the middles of the 17th century, the new science becomes an increasingly Protestant and northern Europe phenomenon Argued that nature was cold, rational, mathematical and mechanistic Laid foundation for the modern study of mechanics—foundation for newton Isaac Newton (1642- 1727)

Universe is mathematical, empirical, practical, no miracles
Calculus, concept of gravity, gravitational pull
Kepler’s 3 Laws of Planetary Motion becomes Newton’s Laws of Motion Inertia, acceleration, for every action that is an equal and opposite reaction Principia Mathematica (1687) mixture of science and math

-Universal gravitaion: planets and star move b/c of gravity, gravity: why planets move in an orderly rather than chaotic 1750s every scientist looked up to Newton
Corpernicus —> Tycho Brahe —> Johannes Kepler (mathematics) —> Galileo—> Newt. Coolectivly “shatter” geocentric theory
Natural Philosphy (Modern Science)
Attempt to understand the workings of nature and the structure of the universe Scientific Revolution: reaches its culmination with Newton and his findings Biology, Chemistry, and Medicine: greater advances in physics and astronomy in 16 and 17 Andreas Versalius: The Structure of the Body (1543), dissection learning about anatomy William Harvy: blood circulation (1628)

Robert Boyle: father of modern chemistry, distinction between chemical elements, compounds, and reactions. Scientific Reasoning and Logic/Philosophy Responds to science Scientists and philosophers see universe as a governed universal laws that can be seen, and discovered with rational inquiry and experiment Francis Bacon (1561- 1626) Lord Chancellor of England

“I will put a new route to intellectual discovery”
Just because an idea has been around for a while does not make it valid Knowedge: secured by experience and data
Nova Organum (New Method): what we can know is limited to what we can run experiments on
Causes of Human Error: Idols of the...
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