The San Andreas Fault is a major fracture of the Earth’s crust on the western coast of North America. The fault trends northwestward for more than 800 miles from the northern end of the Gulf of California through western California, passing seaward into the Pacific Ocean in the vicinity of San Francisco.
Tectonic movement along the fault has been associated with occasional large earthquakes originating near the surface along its path, including a disastrous quake in San Francisco in 1906, a less serious event there in 1989, and a strong and destructive quake centered in the Los Angeles suburb of Northridge in 1994 that occurred along one of the San Andreas’s larger secondary faults.
The San Andreas Fault is a conservative boundary between two major plates of the Earth’s crust: the Pacific to the south and west and the North American to the north and east. The Pacific plate is sliding laterally past the North American plate in a northerly direction, and hence the San Andreas is classified as a strike-slip fault. The annual rate of movement has been 4 to 6 cm per year since the early 20th century. Parts of the fault line moved as much as 6.4 metres during the 1906 earthquake.
The great majority of California’s population lives in the vicinity of the San Andreas Fault. Some cities, towns, housing developments, and roads are actually built on it, and a tunnel of the San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit System (BART) is bored right through the fault zone. Measures taken to offset the danger from earthquakes include reinforcing roads and bridges to withstand tremors and constructing buildings to absorb seismic shocks.
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