The Role of Prejudice In The Merchant of Venice
This paper discusses the subject of prejudice in the William Shakespeare play, The Merchant of Venice.
William Shakespeare's satirical comedy, The Merchant of Venice, believed to have been written in 1596 was an examination of hatred and greed.The premise deals with the antagonistic relationship between Shylock, a Jewish money-lender and Antonio, the Christian merchant, who is as generous as Shylock is greedy, particularly with his friend, Bassanio.The two have cemented a history of personal insults, and Shylock's loathing of Antonio intensifies when Antonio refuses to collect interest on loans.Bassanio wishes to borrow 3,000 ducats from Antonio so that he may journey to Belmont and ask the beautiful and wealthy Portia to marry him.Antonio borrows the money from Shylock, and knowing he will soon have several ships in port, agrees to part with a pound of flesh if the loan is not repaid within three months. Shylock's abhorrence of Antonio is further fueled by his daughter Jessica's elopement with Lorenzo, another friend of Antonio's.
Meanwhile, at Belmont, Portia is being courted by Bassanio, and wedding plans continue when, in accordance with her father's will, Bassanio is asked to choose from three caskets -- one gold, one silver and one lead.Bassanio correctly selects the lead casket that contains Portia's picture.The couple's joy is short-lived, however, when Bassanio receives a letter from Antonio, informing him of the loss of his ships and of Shylock's determination to carry out the terms of the loan.Bassanio and Portia marry, as do his friend, Gratiano and Portia's maid, Nerissa.
The men return to Venice, but are unable to assist Antonio in court.In desperation, Portia disguises herself as a lawyer and arrives in Venice with her clerk (Nerissa) to argue the case.She reminds Shylock that he can only collect the flesh that the agreement calls for, and that if any blood is shed, his property will be confiscated.At this point, Shylock agrees to accept the money instead of the flesh, but the court punishes him for his greed by forcing him to become a Christian and turn over half of his property to his estranged daughter, Jessica.
Prejudice is a dominant theme in The Merchant of Venice, most notably taking the form of anti-semitism.Shylock is stereotypically described as "costumed in a recognizably Jewish way in a long gown of gabardine, probably black, with a red beard and/or wing like that of Judas, and a hooked putty nose or bottle nose" (Charney, p. 41). Shylock is a defensive character because society is constantly reminding him he is different in religion, looks, and motivation.He finds solace in the law because he, himself, is an outcast of society.Shylock is an outsider who is not privy to the rights accorded to the citizens of Venice.The Venetians regard Shylock as a capitalist motivated solely by greed, while they saw themselves as Christian paragons of piety. When Shylock considers taking Antonio's bond using his ships as collateral, his bitterness is evident when he quips, "But ships are but board, sailors but men.There be land rats and water rats, water thieves and land thieves -- I mean pirates -- and then there is the peril of waters, winds, and rocks" (I.iii.25).Shylock believes the Venetians are hypocrites because of their slave ownership.The Venetians justify their practice of slavery by saying simply, "The slaves are ours" (IV.i.98-100).During the trial sequence, Shylock persuasively argues, "You have among you many a purchased slave, which (like your asses and your dogs and mules).You us in abject and in slavish parts, because you bought them, shall I say to you, let them be free, marry them to your heirs...you will answer, `The slaves are ours,' -- so do I answer you:The pound of flesh (which I demand of him) is dearly bought, 'tis mine and I will have it" (IV.i.90-100)....
References: Auden, W.H. 1965. "Brothers and Others," The Dyer 's Hands and Other Essays. New
York: Random House.
Charney, Maurice. 1993. All of Shakespeare. New York: Columbia University Press.
Marlowe, Christopher. Ed. Russell A. Fraser and Norman Rabkin. 1976. Drama of
the English Renaissance I: The Tutor Period. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co.,
Shakespeare, William. Ed. Kenneth Myrick. 1965. The Merchant of Venice. New
York: Signet Books.
Please join StudyMode to read the full document