The Role of Effective Communication
Effective communication is effectiveness or success of communication and interaction in a Some of the factors promote interaction and effective communication, while others can limit interaction and be a barrier to effective communication. There are two example of effective communication these are Argyle Communication Cycle and Tuckman’s Theory of Interaction. Argyle’s theory of the communication cycle is based on interpersonal (one-to-one communication) interaction. The cycle involves two people how they understand each other when interacting and how they decide to reply to each other. health and social care setting which can be influenced by a number of factors. The cycle consists of: 1. An Idea Occurs: You have an idea that you want to communicate 2. Message Coded: You think through how you are going to say what you are thinking. You put your thoughts into language or into some other code such as sign language. 3. Message Sent: You have communicated your idea either through speech, sign, online or off-line written communication. 4. Message Received: The other person has to understand your message. This is not always easy, as the other person will make assumptions about your words and body language. 5. Message Decoded: The other person has to understand and interpret your message. This is not always easy. As the other person will make assumptions about your words e.g. maybe they will hear an insult which isn’t actually an insult. 6. Message Understood: It all goes well when your ideas will be understood but this not always happen first time! To put this theory into practice an example would be in a GP surgery. A doctor’s communication has important information for a service user about their medication they will need to take after they have left the setting. First of all the doctor will decide the type of medication the service user will need to make their health better, this would then lead to the doctor thinking as to how he could communicate what he’s going to say in a respectful and understanding manner to make sure the service user has an understanding of the medication they will be given, in an non patronising tone. To ensure that this does not happen the doctor would speak quite informally to make sure that he/she doesn’t come across as “posh” and patronising, this will then calm the service user as it would make them feel comfortable. After the doctor has decided what he is going to say he would then communicate his ideas to the service user. The doctor has to do this clearly as the patient might not be in a state where they might not fully understand what the doctor is trying to say. The doctor must make sure to keep in mind that he/she can’t be patronising to the service user as they might get insulted. After this the service user must have an understanding of what the doctor has just said. The message would have been received by the service user and then they would have to try interpreting what the doctor has said. This would leave the service user decoding the message however this might not go well as the service user could assume that the doctor was insulting their intelligence. After the message has been decoding and understood and if all goes well the service user would have an understanding what the doctor said. This would leave the service user talking the medication that they need which will improve their overall health and will reduce the risk of them having to come back into the GP about their prescribed medication. However, if the service user has not understood the doctor has said this could potentially mean the service user going back to the GP.
Tuckman’s Theory of Interaction is another theory of effective communication. This theory mostly applies to a group -either working as a group or not. The theory is based on people meeting for the first time, meaning that no one knows each other, this is because if a group knows each other some steps can be easier than others. There are four stages in Tuckman’s theory. These are: 1. Forming – This stage refers to people meeting for the first time and sharing information about the task. 2. Storming – This stage involves tension, struggle and sometimes arguments about the way the group might function. 3. Norming – At this stage the group begins to form a structure and people begin to understand their role within the group. And they start to respect their group values. 4. Performing – This is where the group starts and finishes the task they have been given and they effectively and efficiently perform as a group.
To put this theory into practice an example would be, in a GP surgery, a case conference including the GP, social worker, carer and a nurse about an elderly person who has had a stroke and they are living alone and they need to decide whether the service user goes to a care home or has a permanent carer. Firstly, the GP, social worker, carer and a nurse would meet for the first time and introduce themselves to each other, and then the GP will start explaining what happened to the service user and the GP will talk about what they want to happen to the service user. That is when they will be forming. The group of health and social care professionals might have a bit of tension because the GP wants the service user to have a service user and not want the service user to go to a care home – but the social worker wants the service user to go to a care home. This is the storming stage because there is tension between what they want to happen to the service user. The group start to put all their ideas into one and still try and figure out what to do with the service user, when they do this they all start to respect each other. This is the Norman stage, because they are respecting each other and they are starting to put structures on their ideas for the service user. When the professionals have concluded what they think will best for the service user. They have decided for the service user, depending how many strokes she has in a week, they’ll put her in an elderly care home or have a pert-time career. This is the Performing stage because this is when the group has achieved an effective performance of their choices.
Another example of putting the theory into practice is when a family (consisting of a mother, father, son (5 years old) and a 5 month year old baby) comes into a GP to get their baby girl weighed by a community midwife. The family and the community midwife introduce themselves and the midwife tells them what she’s going to do with their baby girl. This is the Forming stage because they have introduced and the midwife shared the task of what she’s going to do to the family. When the community midwife is weighing she might make a sarcastic joke saying “your baby’s a bit chunky” but in a funny tone, not being serious. The mum then might take is seriously and be a little mad with the midwife as she is feeding her baby correctly. This will be the Storming stage because there is a bit of tension in the room. The community midwife then communicates to the mother about what she can do to make the baby eat more or less depending on what the baby’s weight is, when the midwife is doing her paperwork. This is the Norming stage because they understand the midwife’s role. And the nurse starts to respect the family more. The nurse finishes the paperwork and tells the parents about the weight and how they can improve on the baby health etc. This is the Performing stage because the nurse is finishing her duties to the baby and the family.
Explain and Assess the role of effective communication using examples of how people communicate within a GP surgery.
Five forms of communication:
One of the forms of communication is text messaging. Text messaging is when people communicate over their mobile phones and they type what they want to say to another person. An example in a GP surgery is the receptionist could text message an elderly person to remind them about their appointment. This is a good thing because it is quick and simple for the GP surgery to use. Secondly, it means the elderly person will get a reminder for their GP surgery, so they won’t forget. The bad thing about this is an elderly patient could have a mobile phone but they might not understand how to use the device especially if it is a touch screen phone. Secondly, the patient might not understand how to use the phone; she might not be able to reply back if she can’t attend the appointment. This then goes against Argyles theory because the service user is unable to respond to the receptionist who sent the message. The second form of communication is oral communication. Oral communication is the process of verbally transferring information and ideas from one individual (or group) to another person. For example a service user talking to their GP about an injury that has occurred. The good thing about oral communication it is simple and everyone is able to talk. Secondly, people are very talkative which means they are able to describe what has happened to them. The bad thing about oral communication is that someone might have a stutter which means they won’t be confident to talk to the GP about their problems.
The third form of communication is signs and symbols. Signs and symbols are gestures made with hands or arms, written symbols or diagram (such as fire exit signs) all communicate messages to people. An example in a GP surgery would be a fire occurs in the back of the GP surgery, and the fire exit symbol goes on. A good thing is people will know where the right door is to exit to the building because there will be a sign to direct the service users. A bad thing is that a permanently blind service user will not know where to go because they won’t see the sign to leave the building.
The fourth form of communication is touch. Touch is another way of communicating without words. An example of touch is if a GP has just said to a patient they have a form of cancer and the GP is trying to comfort the patient with touch. A good thing about touch is the GP is sending a message of care. This will lead the service user to trust their GP more as the GP is being caring for the service user. A bad thing about touch is the service user might think the GTO is trying to dominate them. Secondly they might find the GP is patronising them.
The fifth form of communication is written communication. Written communication is the same as oral but it is written down on paper instead of being spoke words. An example of written communication is when a GP us written important information that the patient can’t do when taking their medication. The good thing about this is the service user will have the information in hand instead of having to remember it. Also written communication is easy and simple to use. Also, the service user is able to keep the information for a very long but if the GP never wrote down the service user could have forgotten. The bad thing about written communication is the service user might be blind so they won’t be able to read this. Also, they might lose the paper which means they will not have the information they need.
3 Types of Communication:
The first type of communication is speech.
Explain what factors might affect communication in the Surgery and explain, review and evaluate strategies that can be used to overcome barriers to communication
Stretch, B. & Whitehouse, M. (2010) BTEC Level 3 Nationals in Health and Social Care Student Book 1, Pearson. http://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/oral-communication-definition-types-advantages.html http://www.nottinghamcity.gov.uk/earlyyears/index.aspx?articleid=20151