Introduction. The popularity of the Nazi party from 1928 to 1930 increased in votes by an astonishing 5.5 million, and then a by a further 12 million votes by 1933. This dominant support in Germany changed the course of world history forever. The lives of millions would now begin to change and composers and musician were not exempliﬁed. Their music had to ﬁt the criteria of the Third Reich, it had to be deemed music of the Volk, and eventually become music of the Nazis. The Nazis plan was to have a music of their own, that exempliﬁed everything they stood for, that would in time, when they had realised their ambition of a pure Aryan Germany, also be a pure blood music that they believed would be the ultimate musical form. I will take a look historically, socially and culturally at the effect of the rise to power of the Nazi party and also at the effect on the compositions of Richard Strauss, a man of great international recognition and who was promoted to the head of the Reichsmusikammer. (the State music bureau).
Historical Context: With the collapse of the Wall street stock exchange in 1929 the beginning of the end of prosperity throughout western Europe had begun. Europe suffered heavily with American investors losing thousands of million dollars within a single month, this in turn triggered many short term loans to be called in and eventually resulted in ‘foreign funds totaling 1000 million marks being withdrawn from germany’ (William Carr, A History of Germany, p. 295) during the summer of 1931. This caused the collapse of a number of banks and resulted in the suspension of the German stock exchange to prevent the total collapse of the banking system. The ﬁnancial crisis turned to an industrial crisis, with
Bibliography: Breghahn, V.R. Modern Germany. Cambridge university press.1987. Carr, Williem. A history of Germany fourth edition. Arnold publishers 1991. Crew, David F. Nazism and German society,1933-1945.Routledge.1994 Etlin, Richard A. Art, Culture and Media under the Third Reich. University of Chicago press 2002. Evans,Richard J. The Coming of the Third Reich. The Penguin press. 2004. Kater, Michael H/Reithmuller, A (Schubert,G). Music and Nazism, Art under Tyranny. Laaber 2003. Kennedy, Michael. Richard Strauss, Man,Musician,Enigma. Cambridge university press. 1999 Mann, William. Richard Strauss’s ‘Friedenstag’. Musical Times Publication. Vol 112. 1971. Marek, George R. Richard Strauss: the life of a Non-Hero. London Victor Gollancz Ltd. 1967. Speer, Albert. Inside the Third Reich. Sphere Books. 1971. Stacy, Lee and Henderson, Lol. Encyclopedia of music in the twentieth century. Fitzroy Deanborn publishers. 1999 Web pages 1.(http://fcit.usf.edu/HOLOCAUST/arts/musReich.htm) http://germanhistorydocs.ghi-dc.org/sub_image.cfm?image_id=2082 http://cnx.org/content/m11420/latest/ http://www.jstor.org.ezproxy.falmouth.ac.uk:2048/stable/955947? seq=1&Search=yes&searchText=Friedenstag&list=hide&searchUri=%2Faction %2FdoBasicSearch%3FQuery%3DFriedenstag%26acc%3Don%26wc %3Don&prevSearch=&item=2&ttl=124&returnArticleService=showFullText&resultsService Name=null