The primary function of the respiratory system is to obtain oxygen gas for cell metabolism and
remove carbon dioxide waste.
Describe each of the following general processes of respiration.
Ventilation- air is moved into and out of the lungs so the gases there are continuously
changed and refreshed
external respiration- oxygen diffuses from the lungs to the blood, and carbon dioxide
diffuses from the blood to the lungs
gas transport- oxygen is transported from the lungs to the tissue cells of the body, and
carbon dioxide is transported from the tissue cells to the lungs. Uses blood
as the transporting fluid
internal respiration- oxygen diffuses from blood to tissue cells, and carbon dioxide diffuses f
from tissue cells to blood
The organs of the respiratory tract can be divided into two groups-the upper respiratory tract (nose, nasal cavity, sinuses, and pharynx) and the lower respiratory tract (larynx, trachea, bronchial tree, and lungs).
Upper respiratory tract:
The nose provides an entrance for air and has many internal hairs? for preventing large
air particles from entering the nasal cavity.
The nasal cavity is a space posterior to the nose that is divided medially by the nasal
What is their function?
divide the cavity into passageways that are lined with mucous membrane, and help
increase the surface area available to warm and filter incoming air Cilia:
Particles trapped in the mucus are carried to the pharynx by ciliary action,
swallowed, and carried to the stomach where gastric juice destroys any microorganisms in the mucus.
Lower respiratory tract:
The pharynx (throat) is a common passageway for both the air and food and it aids in producing sounds for speech.
The larynx is an enlargement in the airway superior to the trachea and inferior to
the pharynx. It helps keep particles from entering the trachea and houses the vocal cords.
The larynx is composed of a framework of muscles and cartilage bound by elastic tissue.
What is the largest cartilage called? (hint: it is known as the Adam’s apple).
Inside the larynx, two pairs of folds of muscle and connective tissue covered with mucous
membrane make up the vocal cords.
The upper pair is called the false vocal cords.
What is its function?
aka vestibular folds; play no direct part in sound production but help to close the
glottis when we swallow The lower pair is called the true vocal cords.
What is its function?
aka vocal folds; mucosal folds that function in voice production
Describe the shape and function of the epiglottis.
shaped like a leaf; prevents food from entering the larynx
The trachea extends downward anterior to the esophagus and into the thoracic
cavity, where it splits into right and left bronchi.
Why is the inner wall of the trachea lined with cilia and a mucous membrane? to trap incoming particles
Twenty incomplete cartilaginous rings support the tracheal wall. Explain why these C-shaped
rings are incomplete and do not completely surround the trachea.
open area at back permits expansion of esophagus when swallowing food, and because
this portion of the tracheal wall is flexible, the esophagus can expand anteriorly as
swallowed food passes through it
The bronchial tree consists of branched tubes leading from the trachea to the alveoli.
The bronchial tree begins with a right and left primary bronchi , each leading to a lung.
The bronchial tree branches into finer and finer tubes:
trachea > bronchi > bronchioles > alveolar ducts
These ducts lead to thin-walled sacs called alveolar sacs. These sacs are divided into even...
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