The Reformation in Britain:
The reign of Henry VIII:
Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon: the divorce issue
Thomas Cromwell's ascendancy, 1531-1540, and the establishment of royal supremacy over the church in England (Church of England) c.
Constitutional implications of England's break with Rome d.
The dissolution of the monasteries
Henry VIII's foreign policy
Anne Boleyn accused of adultery and Henry other wife's
The reign of Edward VI: Ecclesiastical and theological developments 3.
The reign of Mary Tudor: The attempts to reverse the English Reformation fail. 4.
The reign of Elizabeth I, 1558-1603:
The re-introduction of the Church of England
Marriage, succession and Mary, Queen of Scots
The growth in seapower and empire
Catholics and Puritans during the reign of Elizabeth I
The Scottish Reformation:
The reign of James V
The reign of Mary, Queen of Scots
The aim of this essay is to write about the impact of the Reformation in Britain and Scotland had on religious and they cultural over the course of a 'long sixteenth century' (roughly 1480-1640). "Until early in the seventeenth century, Great Britain was divided between the house of Tudor in England and Stuart kingdom of Scotland. The two houses were related by blood, and eventually the two kingdoms would be united. But, during the sixteenth century, their relationship was one of enmity and open warfare, and therefore the Reformation followed a different course in each of them. For this reason in
.we shall deal first with the Reformation in England and then turn to the Scottish Reformation." The Reformation in Britain
The reign of Henry VIII:
"In 1503 the future Henry VIII married his elder brother's widow, Catherine of Aragon, a younger daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella. In light of the Old Testament warnings that the man who took his brother's widow to wife would have no issue, Pope Julius II issued a dispensation for the marriage." But Queen Catherine gave Henry no male heir, their only surviving child was Princess Mary Tudor not having a son to carry on his line, King Henry feared he was under God's wrath. "Henry was growing frustrated by his lack of a male heir, but he remained a devoted husband. He had at least two mistresses that we know of: Bessie Blount and Mary Boleyn. By 1526 though, he had begun to separate from Catherine because he had fallen in love with one of her ladies (and sister of one of his mistresses): Anne Boleyn." In 1527 Henry wanted to marry Anne Boleyn. King Henry requests that Rome annul his union with Catherine, thus leaving him free to marry Anne. "Such annulments were not uncommon, and the pope would grant them for various reasons. In this particular case, the argument was that, in spite of the papal dispensation, the marriage between Henry and his brother's widow was not licit, and that therefore it had never a true marriage. But other factors completely unrelated to canon law were much more weighty. The main consideration was that Catherine was the aunt of Charles V, who at that time had the pope practically under his thumb, and who had received a plea from his aunt to save from dishonor. The pope Clement VII could not invalidate Henry's marriage to Catherine without alienating Charles V." He refuse Henry's request. The pope reluctantly authorized a commission consisting of cardinals Wolsey and Campeggio to decide the issue in England. Catherine denied the jurisdiction of the court, and before a decision could be reached, Clement had the hearing adjourned (1529) to Rome. The failure of the commission, followed by reconciliation between Charles V and Francis I, led to the fall of Wolsey and to the initiation by Henry of an anti-ecclesiastical policy intended to force the pope's assent to the divorce. Under the guidance of the...
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