Muhammad left Makkah due to several reasons. However there were several factors, such as the social boycott, the loss of clan protection and the threats he faced, which lead him to make his final decision.
Muhammad and his followers were shunned by the people of Makkah, to such an extent that no one was providing them with food. This was known as the social boycott. As a result Muhammad sought refuge in Madinah who accepted him with open arms.
The prophet Muhammad loss the protection from his clan because the people of Makkah felt he was attacking their beliefs. Muhammad’s life was at risk and his opponents were increasing. This was evident when Makkan children were commanded to stone Muhammad out of town. Muhammad couldn’t put his life at risk because he had to complete his mission; therefore he had no choice but to migrate, to protect his life as well as his followers’ lives.
Muhammad felt that action needed to be taken so he had a discussion with some of the people of Madinah. He later travelled to Aqaba where he made a pledge with some of the residents. The people of Madinah pledged to protect Muhammad and his followers, keep them safe and stand with him. Muhammad accepted their pledge and migrated because he noticed their sincerity in him and felt reassured that they will help him succeed, so he left for Madinah.
Some may state that Muhammad believed it was the will of God that he migrated to Madinah. This is based on the fact that Muhammad had to complete his mission of Islam which remained incomplete when he was in Makkah. Therefore migrating to Madinah meant that his message would be complete. Also, when Muhammad was planning on migrating, he received a revelation and was informed by the angel Gabriel, that the Quraysh were planning on attacking him and so the angel ordered him not to sleep in his bed. Instead Ali ibn Abi Talib took his position and when the men of Quraysh