Topic: The Bottom Billion
Title: The Problems of Irrigation System in Sudan
According to Collier (2008) bottom billion are country whose problems defy traditional approaches to alleviating poverty. The crisis lies in a group of 50 states that failed to develop in the twenty-first century. Haiti, Kazakhstan, Kenya, North Korea, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, Niger, Nigeria are the listed country of the bottom billion. But 70 percent of the bottom billion lived in Africa, and there is good reason to expect that proportion to rise.
According to Robert (2008) Sudan was a collection of small, independent kingdoms and principalities from the beginning of the Christian era until 1820-21, when Egypt conquered and unified the northern portion of the country. Sudan is the third largest country in Africa. The topography of Sudan is flat with mountains in east and west. According to The World Factbook, Khartoum, the capital city of Sudan situated at the meet of Blue and White Nile Rivers which make the soil fertile and good for agriculture activity. About 80 percent of Sudan people make profit from agriculture activities and about 97 percent of the water used.The products of agriculture are cotton, peanuts, sorghum, sesame seeds, gum arabic, sugarcane, millet, and livestock.
northern states of Khartoum and Gezira. In addition, there is an irrigation project, Gezira carried out by the government to enhance the water system for the agriculture. Therefore, agriculture contributes the largest profit to the country. Unfortunately, there are some problems occurs in their irrigation system. One of the problems is the weakness of the government in controlling the irrigation system. Next, the low maintenance of the irrigation system, Al Gezira and drought can lead to error in irrigation system for agriculture.
These studies are mainly focus on the irrigation