Tourism Management, Warren John Fall 2011
The current research paper covers the main effects of global tourism, both positive and negative. International tourism is a significant sector of business. For some countries it is one of the main sources of national income. The most important positive economic effects of tourism are as follows: increase in budget revenues, production expansion, stimulation of investments, and improvement in the population’s welfare. Tourism influences social and cultural lives of people in a positive way by stimulating the development and revival of local cultures and encouraging intercultural exchange. Tourism has both positive and negative effects on the environment. Among the negative effects of tourism, the most important ones are inflation, financial leakage, infrastructure costs, and economic dependence. Political issues can also arise because of tourism. The countries should be aware of the negative effects of tourism in order to avoid them.
Keywords: international tourism, environment, economic effect, leakage, tourist infrastructure.
Table of Contents Introduction 2 The Negative and Positive Effects of Tourism 2 Positive Effects 2 Economic effects. 2 Environmental effects. 6 Cultural effects. 6 Social effects. 8 Negative Effects of Tourism 10 Political effects. 10 Inflation. 11 Financial leakage. 12 Increase in infrastructure and incidental costs. 14 Economic dependence. 15 Negative impact on the environment. 16 Conclusion 17
The Negative and Positive Effects of Tourism
Nowadays tourism is widespread throughout the world. Millions of people travel to different countries all year round seeking rest, new experience, and impressions. Lately tourism has become quite a profitable business, which also brings benefits to a country’s economy and thus the well-being of the
References: Hall, M. C. & Lew, A. A. (2009). Managing tourism impacts. New York, NY: Routledge. Hemmati, M. & Koehler, N. (2000). Financial leakages in tourism. Sustainable Travel & Tourism, p. 25-29. Economic impacts of tourism Kreag, G. (2001). The impact of tourism. Retrieved from: http://www.seagrant.umn.edu/tourism/pdfs/ImpactsTourism.pdf. Mak, J Mason, P. (2008). Tourism impacts, planning, and management. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann. Peters, P. (2002). International tourism: the new engine of the Cuban economy. Retrieved from: http://lexington.server278.com/docs/cuba3.pdf. Slob, B. & Wilde, J. (2006). Tourism and sustainability in Brazil. Retrived from: http://somo.nl/html/paginas/pdf/Tourism_in_Brazil_oct_2006_EN.pdf. UNESCO Bangkok. (2008). Impact: the effects of tourism on culture and the environment in Asia and the Pacific. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0018/001826/182647e.pdf.