The policy process part 2
December 15, 2014
The Policy Process: Evaluation, Analysis and Revision
The policy process, part one, contains information on the formulation, implementation, and the legislation phase. The first phase is formulation; this is where information is gathered and delivered to the various individuals and groups involved. The next phase is evaluation; this is where discussions and/or debates take place. The next phase would be implementation; this is where the policy would be acted on or adopted. The topic of this paper is healthcare insurance for elderly and low income individuals and families. This paper is part two of the policy process and will show how the continuation of a policy is created. This paper consists of the evaluation phase, analysis phase, and revision phase.
The evaluation stage is current policies being re-examined. During this time policies can be amended to change with circumstances (Abood, 2007). The majority of public policies are subjected to changes in this type of pattern. Change in this type of health policy can be seen within the Medicare program. There have been many changes since the Medicare program was introduced in 1965. Over the years, Congress has revised the Medicare program several times and increased several preventive care services. For example, Medicare Part D was added as an alternative prescription drug program that would be available for Medicare recipients.
Policy evaluation is constantly maintaining the policy. The policy will be examined through to a certain point, resources must be available, and a means of maintaining the policy will show the efficiency of said policy (Slack, Dr., N/A). Policymakers look at the goals of the policy and determine whether or not changes should be made. The evaluation process examines the efficacy of policy operations, implementation of the policy, and delivery of service (Poverty Action Lab, N/A). Process evaluation makes sure that goals and services are being reached adequately. Evaluations are used to measure the success of the policy.
The analysis stage is the process that identifies and evaluates different programs and policies that may possibly resolve economic, physical, or social issues. According to Carl V. Patton, there are six simple steps in completing policy analysis.
1. Verification, definition, and detailed description of the issue. Probably the most important step of all, often policy objectives are unclear or they may contradict one another.
2. Establishing evaluation standards. Establishing evaluation standards allows the analyst to compare, measure, and select alternatives, applicable evaluation standards to be established. Cost, net benefit, efficiency, legality, effectiveness, equity, political acceptability, and administrative ease must be considered in this step.
3. Identifying alternative policies. The success of steps one and two determines reaching the third step. The policy analysis process includes a incrementalist approach; reaching one goal in order to reach the next. Combining different alternatives can help reduce solutions not presented before.
4. Evaluating alternative policies. The packaging of alternative solutions is next in a successful policy analysis. Evaluating all the possible solutions will benefit the policy criteria already in place. Additional information is collected when analyzing influence levels: economical, political, and social aspects of the issue.
5. Displaying and distinguishing alternative policies. The evaluation of alternatives show the standards of criteria met. Numbers don’t speak by themselves but are helpful in final solution decision-making. Comparison schemes are used in summarizing the virtues and help distinguish between several options; quantitive methods, qualitative analysis and complex political considerations are combined in general alternatives.
6. Monitoring the implemented policy. Assuring continuity, decides whether the changes have had an impact on the policy. “Even after a policy has been implemented, there may be some doubt whether the problem was resolved appropriately and even whether the selected policies being implemented properly.” (Patton, N/A).
After the policy has been evaluated and analyzed, the revision stage begins. The revision stage is to correct any errors that may be found. The revision stage consists of more than just errors; this is where the policy is crafted. Making the processes clearer and easier makes for a good revision stage. The revision stage of the policy process is the last stage before finalization of the policy to be implemented. The methodology process in evaluation and revision of public policy is to make changes or improve the public’s health. When trying to reach the policy goals, the professionals that provide patient care include public health officials. These professionals have to follow guidelines that will assist elderly or low income patients with quality care.
Each one of these stages plays an important role in the policy process. When dealing with elderly or low income patients, it is important to follow the policies and guidelines. Sometimes, when dealing with the elderly or low income patients, healthcare professionals could have to deal with issues on personal levels. It is of major importance that these professionals follow all the rules and regulations required. In building the policy the focus of this paper is on the evaluation stage, analysis stage, and the revision stage. In developing a policy on Medicare, for elderly and low income patients, there are strategies in which the policies are built on. When all of the ideas are discussed in revised they are brought into the revision stage of the process. We have discussed the evaluation stages of the policy process which gives individuals the chance to view the beneficial aspects of the policy. In the analysis stage, we began to see how the policy can be implemented and total agreement by policymakers is important. The revision stage gives policymakers the chance to make sure that enough information is given and that said information is accurate. The main goal that public health officials are seeking is in making sure that all information can be accepted nationwide. JHACO and OSHA are agencies that will provide the regulations and inspections. When the Medicare policy process needs revisions it is critical that these revisions are made nationwide. The purpose behind policies and policy process, is that it gives patients and healthcare professionals the direction needed in following the guidelines of the policy.
Abood, S. (2007). Influencing Health Care in the Legislative Arena. Retrieved from http://medscape.com/viewarticle/55304_4
Patton, C. (N/A). Steps for a Successful Policy Analysis. Retrieved from http://stepsforsuccessfulpolicyanalysis.blogspot.com/20112102steps-for-successful-policy-analysis.html
Poverty Action Lab. (N/A). Process Evaluation. Retrieved from http://www.povertyactionlab.org/methodology/what-evaluation/process-evaluation
Slack, Dr., B. (N/A). The Policy Process. Retrieved from http://people.hofstra.edu/goetrans/eng/methods/ch9c2en.html
References: Abood, S. (2007). Influencing Health Care in the Legislative Arena. Retrieved from http://medscape.com/viewarticle/55304_4 Patton, C. (N/A). Steps for a Successful Policy Analysis. Retrieved from http://stepsforsuccessfulpolicyanalysis.blogspot.com/20112102steps-for-successful-policy-analysis.html Poverty Action Lab. (N/A). Process Evaluation. Retrieved from http://www.povertyactionlab.org/methodology/what-evaluation/process-evaluation Slack, Dr., B. (N/A). The Policy Process. Retrieved from http://people.hofstra.edu/goetrans/eng/methods/ch9c2en.html