The Policy Process
The Policy Process
In today’s health care system it is constantly improving and changing, due to the demands of the health care system. For this to happen new policies must be created or even improving old policies. Congress is involved in the process of policy making; including three stages such as foundation stage, legislative stage, and implementation stage. When a health care topic is in process of becoming a policy it hopes to reach a desired outcome to have a positive effect on people. In the policy making model it has its strengths and limitations. Its strength is the reduction of complexity of policy making to manageable. The limitations of the policy making model is the linearly of the model. It is viewed as the last stage of the model overlapping with first stage, “where each step is considered as temporally and functionally distinct” (Metagora, 1995).
In the policy process there are many different models that explain the process. “One of the oldest and most common approaches to the study of policy- making derives from the early work of H. Lasswell (1951)”. H. Lasswell was an American political scientist who was known as the first to have taken into account and analyzed policy as a process. The most common model and the one H. Lasswell helped build is known as the stages model of policy. There are six stages within this model such as identification, agenda- setting, and adoption. But the most common stages would be the formulation stage, legislative stage, and the implementation stage. The formulation stage is the “formulation of policy proposals, their initiation and development, by policy planning organizations, interest groups, and/ or the executive or legislative branches of government” (Metagora, 1995). The next stage is the legislative stage, its where the “policy is codified into legislation and its standards are the same as the current process” (Economic Development, n.d). The implementation stage is the “implementation of policies through bureaucracies, public expenditures, and the activities of executive agencies” *(Metagora, 1995). So the complete process of how a topic becomes a policy is first to identify the policies issues or problems. Next is to focus on the specific issues with the policy. Then the formulation stage, legislative stage, and the implementation stage, then the evaluation stage is the last step and it measures the impact of change. Policy is defined as a “plan of action to guide decisions and actions orientated towards solving problems” (Metagora, 1995). To understand the policy making process means to understand the countries or areas context or characteristics that potentially play a role in shaping it.
“The impact of politics and economics on policy has been the subject of much debate and controversy” (J Stor, 2011). The effects of political influences on policy outcomes are affected in a market place society where money buys influences and political outcomes. The “leaders of corporate empires and their supporters have infiltrated the structures of democracy and have come to control it in their interest” (J Stor, 2011). Meaning the more their interest is involved there is going to be greater corporate political activity. With health care and age care being the center of legislative effort in the last 15 years, a great amount of money is spent in proportional to the corporate need for legislative. This is a consequence meaning more money is being spent by health and pharmaceutical groups than most other sectors. Corporate political influence is exerted in multiple ways. “Many health policy decisions that affect how health care professionals care for their patients are made by the federal government or state and local governments (Pub Med, 2001). Healthy policies decisions are made by the appointed officials in various are often branches of the government influenced by...
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