The pattern of development in the first 3 years

Topics: Finger, Hand, Sitting Pages: 5 (1448 words) Published: November 24, 2014
The pattern of development in the first 3 years of life
Early childhood is a time of massive growth in all areas of development. A needy newborn grows into a little person who can take care of their own body and interact with others. Because of this, the primary developmental task of this stage is ‘skill development’. Between birth and age three, physically, a child typically quadruples in weight and doubles in height. Bodily proportions also shift, so that the infant, whose head accounts for almost one-fourth of total body length, becomes a toddler with a more balanced, adult-like appearance. Despite these rapid physical changes, the average three-year-old has mastered many skills, including walking, sitting, toilet training, using utensils, scribbling, and enough hand-eye coordination to catch and throw a ball. Skills typically aquired at each stage

At Birth
Babies are born with some gross motor & fine motor skills, they are; When on their backs, they lay with their head turned to one side When placed on their front, again with their head to one side, the buttocks is humped and the knees are tucked under the abdomen When pulled to a sitting position, the head lags

When held up by a hand under the chest, the head drops below the plane of the body, and the arms and legs are partly bent Babies usually hold their hands tightly closed, but the hands may open spontaneously during feeding or when the back of the hand is being stroked They often hold their thumbs tucked in under their fingers

1 – 3 months
Keep their head to one side when lying on their back, with arm and the leg on the face side outstretched, the knees apart, and the soles of the feet turned inwards Can turn from their side to their back

Will lift their head briefly from the prone position
When held in ‘ventral suspension’, will keep the head in line with the body and the hips semi-extended Make jerky and uncontrolled arm & leg movements
If pulled to a sitting position, will show head lag
Beginning to take their fists to their mouth
Open their hands from time to time
Show interest and excitement by their facial expressions
Open their hands to grasp an adult’s finger
Keep their head in a central position when lying supine
Can now fit both their head and their chest in the prone position, supported on their forearms When held in ventral suspension, keep their head above the line of the body Have almost no head lag in moving into the sitting position When held, can sit with their backs straight

Kick vigorously, with their legs alternating or occasionally together Can wave their arms and bring their hands together over their body Move their head to follow adults’ movements
Watch their hand and play with their fingers
Clasp and unclasp their hands at the midline of the body, and take them to the mouth Can hold a rattle for a brief time before dropping it
6 months
If lying on their back can roll over onto their stomach
If lying on their stomach can lift their head & chest, supporting themselves on their arms & hands Can use their shoulders to pull themselves into a sitting position Can bear almost all their own weight

When held standing, do so with a straight back
When held sitting, do so with a straight back
When held on the floor, bounce their feet up & down
Lift their legs into a vertical position and grasp one or both feet with their hands Kick vigorously with their legs alternating
Move their arms purposefully and hold them up, indicating a wish to be lifted Change the angle of their body to reach out for an object
Reach and grab when a small toy is offered
Use their whole hand to pass a toy from one hand to the other Poke at small objects with their index finger
Explore objects by putting them in their mouth
9 months
Can maintain a sitting position with a straight back
Can sit unsupported for upto 15 minutes
Turn their body to look sideways when stretching out to pick up a toy from the floor Pull themselves to a...
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