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The Paleolithic And Neolithic Eras

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The Paleolithic And Neolithic Eras
With the beginning of human history comes the Stone Age—comprised of the Paleolithic and Neolithic Eras. The start of tool-making marks the former; the start of agriculture marks the latter. The first forms of tools in the Paleolithic Era were quite basic and rough, made from materials like wood, bone, and stone. Tools such as choppers for cracking bone and scrapers for preparing animal hide were used, and were then designed upon by later hominoids, from which weapons like clubs, spears, and knives were developed. These rudimentary tools functioned as the people’s means of survival. As a hunter-gatherer society, one killed and foraged for food and shelter. Tools were the catalyst. Fire was also a catalyst. It assisted alongside tools in hunting …show more content…
They believed that anything and everything has a spirit, with the invisible connection between these sprits forming the perceptible products of war, weather, and well-being. Dependent on the world around them and wanting a positive outcome for any occasion, they relied on spirits such as the rain, animals, and various landforms to bring about a good outcome. Thus, an assortment of ritual dances and ceremonies attributed to particular spirits were performed according to the community’s need. Paleolithic art also reflects the importance of food and fertility in their culture, and were probably made to aid in controlling their environment. Shamans, people who could wield certain mystic powers, were also deemed valuable and fearful because of the impact their abilities could have on the community. Communities were ordered by the gradual ascendance of relationships. The establishment of social groups over time led to the formation of families, which became the base for clans, and these clans would combine with other clans. Hence, early tribes formed. A government formed with it. Within the tribe, chiefs were the head and the glue for the people, as well as religious …show more content…
Often associated with the end of the Ice Age, the Neolithic period begins as the New Stone Age. From here, hominoids have begun domesticating livestock and raising crops. Dairying also began. This was a change from their foraging-based practices to attain food, and introduced them to the agricultural lifestyle. Their diets also changed. They now consumed more plants than they did meat. Due to the alteration in their diets, Neolithic people became an average of five inches shorter than their predecessors, and lost both bone length and bone mass. What used to be their primary source of energy, the vitamin and nutrient-dense meat, was now replaced by plants, which contained less of those substances. Thus, even with a higher capacity of crops than they did meat, nutrient exchange was not equal. Vitamin D, essential for maintaining bone health, was absent in those plants, contributing to a variety of skin colors based on artificial selection. In the north, a higher absorbency of vitamin D is needed, so people were lighter-skinned and could therefore absorb more ultra-violet rays to compromise for the lack of sun. An enzyme to break down carbohydrates and a hormone to regulate the resulting sugars (insulin) also appeared, as per the consumption of grains in the diet. Alongside the diet, their tools also evolved. Pottery was used, and more tools were geared

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