The Outsider

Topics: Existentialism, Absurdism, The Myth of Sisyphus Pages: 19 (5655 words) Published: May 30, 2010
A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF ALBERT CAMUS’S THE STRANGER AND THE MYTH OF SISYPHUS FROM POST-COLONIAL AND RELIGIOUS PERSPECTIVES

BY

RASSOUL DJAMOUKHANOV

INTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY MALAYSIA

2007

A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF ALBERT CAMUS’S THE STRANGER AND THE MYTH OF SISYPHUS FROM POST-COLONIAL AND RELIGIOUS PERSPECTIVES

BY

RASSOUL DJAMOUKHANOV

A dissertation submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of Master of Human Sciences (English Literary Studies) Kulliyyah Of Islamic Revealed Knowledge and Human Sciences International Islamic University Malaysia

JUNE 2007

ABSTRACT

This thesis, entitled “A Critical Analysis of Albert Camus’s L’Etranger (The Stranger, published in 1942) and Le Mythe de Sisyphe (The Myth of Sisyphus, published in 1942) from Post-Colonial and Religious Perspectives,” concerns itself with the discussion of Albert Camus’s The Stranger and The Myth of Sisyphus. These two works have been chosen for critical examination due to their philosophical interconnection. The major thematic preoccupations contained in these writings, such as the Absurd morality and existentialism as well as underlying motifs of The Stranger like colonialism, are brought into focus and discussed at length in this research. The critical discussion encompasses analysis of the Absurd hero whose life is founded on the moral principles expounded in The Myth of Sisyphus. In the course of the study, some interesting analogies have been established between Camusian absurd man and Nietzscheian superhuman; both have much in common in terms of their moral outlook and attitude towards life. Special treatment is given to the theme of colonialism which is so pronounced in The Stranger. The discussion of the morality of the Absurd directs this study towards some metaphysical issues including the relationship between God and human beings, as well as the individual’s worldly and spiritual goals. This research points out the deficiencies of the Absurd philosophy and the detrimental consequences of nihilistic vision. The thesis traces the links between Camus’s own life and the ideas that these two works contain, and pays particular attention to his philosophical outlook and his stand towards the Algerian problem.

i

‫ﻣﻠﺨﺺ اﻟﺒﺤﺚ‬

‫هﺬﻩ ا ُﻃﺮوﺣﺔ ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﻧﻘﺪي ﻝﻜﺘﺎﺑﻲ أﻝﺒﻴﺮت آﺎﻣﻮس )اﻝﻐﺮیﺐ، اﻝﻤﻨﺸﻮر ﺳﻨﺔ 2491م( وآﺘﺎب‬ ‫ﻷ‬ ‫)أﺳﻄﻮرﻩ ﺳﻴﺰیﻒ، اﻝﻤﻨﺸﻮر ﺳﻨﺔ 2491م( ﻣﻦ وﺟﻬﺔ ﻧﻈﺮ ﻣﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ اﻻﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎر وﻣﻦ وﺟﻬﺔ ﻧﻈﺮ‬ ‫دیﻨﻴﺔ. وﺗﻬﺘﻢ هﺬﻩ ا ُﻃﺮوﺣﺔ ﺑﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ آﺘﺎﺑﻲ أﻝﺒﻴﺮت آﺎﻣﻮس )اﻝﻐﺮیﺐ( و )أﺳﻄﻮرﻩ ﺳﻴﺰیﻒ(. آﻼ‬ ‫ﻷ‬ ‫اﻝﻜﺘﺎﺑﻴﻦ ﺗﻢ اﺧﺘﻴﺎرهﻤﺎ ﻝﻠﺪراﺳﺔ اﻝﻨﻘﺪیﺔ ﻧﻈﺮا ﻝﻠﺘﺮاﺑﻂ اﻝﻔﻠﺴﻔﻲ ﺑﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ واﻝﺘﺮآﻴﺰ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻻهﺘﻤﺎﻣﺎت‬ ‫اﻝﻤﻮﺿﻮﻋﻴﺔ اﻝﺮﺋﻴﺴﺔ اﻝﻮاردة ﻓﻲ هﺬیﻦ اﻝﻜﺘﺎﺑﻴﻦ، ﻣﺜﻞ اﻷﺧﻼق، واﻝﻮﺟﻮدیﺔ، واﻝﻌﺒﺜﻴﺔ، وآﺬﻝﻚ‬ ‫اﻝﺪواﻓﻊ اﻝﻜﺎﻣﻨﺔ ﻓﻲ آﺘﺎب )اﻝﻐﺮیﺐ( ﻣﺜﻞ اﻻﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎر، ﺣﻴﺚ ﻧﻮﻗﺸﺖ هﺬﻩ اﻝﺪواﻓﻊ ﺑﺎﻝﺘﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﻓﻲ هﺬا‬ ‫اﻝﺒﺤﺚ. وﺗﺸﻤﻞ اﻝﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ اﻝﻨﻘﺪیﺔ ﻝﻜﻼ اﻝﻌﻤﻠﻴﻦ ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ اﻝﻌﺒﺜﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺣﻴﺎة اﻝﺒﻄﻞ اﻝﺘﻲ ﺗﻘﻮم ﻋﻠﻰ اﻝﻤﺒﺎدئ‬ ‫اﻷﺧﻼﻗﻴﺔ اﻝﻤﻮﺟﻮدة ﻓﻲ ﺵﺮح )أﺳﻄﻮرﻩ ﺳﻴﺰیﻒ(. وﻣﻦ ﺧﻼل هﺬﻩ اﻝﺪراﺳﺔ، ﻓﺈن ﺑﻌﺾ اﻝﺘﺸﺎﺑﻬﺎت‬ ‫ُﻗﻴﻤﺖ ﺑﻴﻦ آﺎﻣﻮﺳﻴﺎن اﻝﺮﺟﻞ اﻝﻌﺒﺜﻲ، وﺑﻴﻦ اﻝﺮﺟﻞ اﻝﺨﺎرق ﻧﻴﻴﺘﺰﺳﺸﻴﻴﺎن؛ آﻤﺎ أن ﻝﺪیﻬﻤﺎ اﻝﻜﺜﻴﺮ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫أ‬ ‫اﻷﻣﻮر اﻝﻤﺸﺘﺮآﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ اﻻﺗﺠﺎﻩ اﻷﺧﻼﻗﻲ ﻧﺤﻮ اﻝﺤﻴﺎة. وﻗﺪ أوﻝﺖ هﺬﻩ اﻝﺪراﺳﺔ ﻋﻨﺎیﺔ ﺧﺎﺹﺔ‬ ‫ﻝﻤﻮﺿﻮع اﻻﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎر اﻝﺬي یﻈﻬﺮ ﺑﺸﻜﻞ واﺿﺢ ﻓﻲ آﺘﺎب )اﻝﻐﺮیﺐ(. أﻣﺎ ﺑﺎﻝﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻝﻠﻤﻨﺎﻗﺸﺔ اﻷﺧﻼﻗﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻝﻤﻮﺿﻮع اﻝﻌﺒﺜﻴﺔ ﻓﺈن هﺬﻩ اﻝﺪراﺳﺔ ﺗﺘﻨﺎول ﺑﻌﺾ اﻝﻘﻀﺎیﺎ اﻝﻤﻴﺘﺎﻓﻴﺰیﻘﻴﺔ ﻣﺜﻞ اﻝﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ اﷲ واﻝﺒﺸﺮ،‬ ‫وآﺬﻝﻚ أهﺪاف اﻹﻧﺴﺎن اﻝﺪﻧﻴﻮیﺔ واﻝﺮوﺣﻴﺔ. وآﻤﺎ أن هﺬا اﻝﺒﺤﺚ ُﺸﻴﺮ أیﻀﺎ إﻝﻰ ُوﺟﻪ اﻝﻘﺼﻮر ﻓﻲ‬ ‫أ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ی‬ ‫ﻓﻠﺴﻔﺔ اﻝﻌﺒﺜﻴﺔ وﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ اﻷﺿﺮار اﻝﻤﻨﺒﺜﻘﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻓﻠﺴﻔﺔ اﻝﻌﺪﻣﻴﺔ. آﻤﺎ ﺗﻌﻤﻞ هﺬﻩ ا ُﻃﺮوﺣﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ رﺑﻂ‬ ‫ﻷ‬ ‫اﻝﺼﻼت ﺑﻴﻦ ﺣﻴﺎة آﻮﻣﺲ اﻝﺬاﺗﻴﺔ واﻷﻓﻜﺎر اﻝﺘﻲ یﺤﻤﻠﻬﺎ آﻼ اﻝﻌﻤﻠﻴﻦ، ویﻮﻝﻰ اهﺘﻤﺎﻣﺎ ﺧﺎﺹﺎ ﻻﺗﺠﺎهﻪ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫اﻝﻔﻠﺴﻔﻲ، وﻣﻮﻗﻔﻪ ﺗﺠﺎﻩ اﻝﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ اﻝﺠﺰاﺋﺮیﺔ.‬

‫‪ii‬‬

ABSTRAK

Tesis ini adalah analisis kritikal terhadap dua buku Albert Camus iaitu L`Etranger (The Stranger) dan Le Mythe de Sisyphe (The Myth of Sisyphus) dari “Pertimbangan Perspektif Pasca Kolonial dan Agama”. Kajian berkisar kepada perbincangan dalam The Stranger dan The Myth of Sisyphe. Kedua hasil kerja...

Bibliography: 1
Today, Islam is still misconstrued as “anti-human, anti-democratic, antiSemitic, anti-rational” (Said, 1980: 5)
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Though Camus tried to disassociate himself from existentialist philosophers (Kamber,2002), his mode of reasoning exhibits existential mindset as the essay reveals
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