The origin of the universe

Topics: Universe, General relativity, Physical cosmology Pages: 5 (1643 words) Published: November 30, 2013


The origin of the universe has been the most fascinating riddle in the human mind. Throughout the years mankind has examined the universe for signs of its origin. It reaches far beyond its purely scientific significance since it is related to human existence, to mythology and to religion. For much of humankind history, the universe has been out of reach, but it changed dramatically in the 20th century with the advancement in modern technology and powerful ideas from great minds. Since the 20th century around the world, there have been various theories that attempt to describe how our universe began based on religion and science. Currently the Big Bang theory appears to the most cherished and most tangible theory on the scale. However, the quest for finding solution to the origin of the universe gets more intensified as questions rise against the Big Bang theory, along with the concepts like multiverse and string theory taking place in modern cosmology. According to the Big Bang theory, the cosmos of the universe began around 13.7 billion years ago and has expanded and cooled ever since. This phenomenon is explained through Einstein’s general theory of relativity, which states there was a colossal explosion after which everything started coming into existence, even “time” itself(Kruesi, 2007). The earliest moment of the universe, the so-called Planck era prior to about 10-43 seconds the universe was a soup of nature's basic building blocks: quarks, leptons and the force carriers. During this time, energies presumably were so high that microscopic particles exerted gravitational force, yielding a chaotic space foam( Turner, 2009; Lawerence, 2009). Also, a speculative, but widely accepted belief is that around 10-35 seconds there was a time of massive expansion called inflation--A period of extremely rapid expansion during which the observable universe expanded by a million billion trillion times in less than a trillionth of a second(Nadis,2006; Turner, 2009). We are more confident that at 10-10 seconds electromagnetic and weak nuclear forces became distinct and a potential type of dark matter was synthesized. At 10-6 seconds quarks were confined into protons and neutrons, as the cooling goes on, eventually nuclei and atoms came into existence. Thus what we called matter began its impressive build up of complexity(Turner, 2009; Lawerence, 2009). Eventually, as the time passes on and with sufficient cooling taking place the dark ages begins for the universe. During which the gravity kept on amplifying density difference in the gas that fills space. It was 300 million years after the initial start, when first stars and galaxies formed, which brought an end to the dark age(Turner, 2009). Today after 13.7 billion years the observable path of the universe is now inhabited by billions of galaxies, stars and planets, along with cosmological structures like novas, supernovas and black holes. However, the fact that the universe is still growing with a greater accelerated pace. Astronomers explains expanding universe with an example of a balloon. As the space stretches like the rubber in an inflating balloon, galaxies move apart(Turner, 2009; Kruesi, 2007). The point is that the universe had a beginning and a history. Current physics claims that the ensemble of matter, fundamental particles, space-time, energy, force fields governed by the basic laws of the physics started. However, the claims and predictions for the beginning of the universe in accordance with the Big Bang theory were supposed until Edwin Hubble firmly established that galaxies are moving apart from one another in a regular pattern describe by a mathematical relation in 1920s(Turner,2009; Kruesi, 2007). Moreover, he explains space itself is expanding , and galaxies are being carried along with it. Light, too, is red shifted--A process that saps its energy, so that universe cools as it expands. These establishments interrelate with...
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