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The Onset of K to 12 Curriculum: Status, Challenges, and Problems

By vangsmartinezzy Oct 09, 2014 4481 Words
Republic of the Philippines
BATAAN PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY
Don M. Banzon Avenue Poblacion
City of Balanga, Bataan
Balanga Campus

College of Education
(047)237-4688

DOCUMENTARY REPORT

The Onset of K to 12 Curriculum:
Status, Challenges, and Problems

Prepared by:
Ann Marie J. Buling
Evangeline C. Martinez
Loradel E. Moog
Angela Desa B. Perez
Arjay P. Quiles
Mary Ann M. Rafael
Andrea Jessa D. Reyes
BSE III - Mathematics

Lourdes S. Santos, Ed. D.
Intructor
14 March 2014
A. 1. The Physical Environment
The Campus Landscape
The Physical Facilities
Laboratories and Equipment

2. The Social Environment
School Curricular and Extra-Curricular Activities
Awards and Achievements
Classroom Practices

B. The Curricular Design
1. Description of the Curriculum
2. The Guiding Philosophy/Principle
3. The Psychological/Social and Historical Bases
4. The Educational Objectives
C. The Curriculum in Action
(Justification/Manifestations of Curricular Design) D. Evaluation/Insights and Realization with Theoretical Bases

“We need to add two years to our basic education. Those who can afford pay up to fourteen years of schooling before university. Thus their children are getting into the best Universities and the best jobs after graduation. I want at least 12 years for our public school children to give them an even chance at succeeding.” PresidentBenigno S. AquinoIII

RATIONALE
Enhancing the quality of Basic Education in the Phillipines is urgent and criticial. The poor quality education is reflected in the low achievement of Filipino students. This quality of education is reflected in the inadequate preparation of high school graduates for the world of work or entrepreneurship or higher education. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

As early as 1925, studies have observed the inadequacy of the basic education curriculum. As one of the most well studied reforms, recommendations of either adding or restoring 7th grade or adding an extra year to basic education have been put forward.

a. Monroe Survey (1925): Secondary education did not prepare for life and recommended training in agriculture, commerce, and industry. b. Prosser Survey (1930): Recommended to improve phases of vocational education such as 7th grade shopwork, provincial schools, practical arts training in the regular high schools, home economics, placement work, gardening, and agricultural education. c. UNESCO Mission Survey (1949): recommended the restoration of Grade 7. d. Education Act. of 1953: under Section 3, mandates that “the primary course shall be composed of four grades(Grades I to IV) and the intermediate course of three grades (GradeVtoVII).” e. SwansonSurvey(1960): Recommended the restoration of Grade7. f. PresidentialCommissionto SurveyPhilippine education (PCSPE) (1970): High priority be given to the implementation of an 11-year program; Recommended program consists of 6years of compulsory elementary educationand 5 years of secondary education. g. Congressional Commission on Education (EDCOM) Report (1991): If one year is to be added in the education program, it recommends one of two alternatives: Seven years of elementary education or Five years of secondary education. h. Presidential Commission on Educational Reforms (2000): Reform proposals include the establishment of a one-year pre-baccalaureate system that would also bring the Philippines at par with other countries.

Where are we at now?
Insufficient mastery of basic competencies due to congested curriculum. 12 years curriculum is being delivered in 10 years.
High school graduates are younger than 18 years old and lack basic competencies and maturity. They cannot legally enter into contracts and are not emotionally mature for entrepreneurship/employment. Other countries view the 10-years education cycle as insufficient.

What is K to 12?
K to 12 means Kindergarten and the 12 years of elementary and secondary education. Kindergarten refers to 5 years old cohort that takes a standardized kinder curriculum. Elementary education refers to primary schooling that involves six or seven years of education. Secondary education refers to high school.

K to 12 Education Vision
Graduates of Enhanced K to 12 Basic Education Program will:
Acquire mastery of basic competencies.
Be more emotionally mature.
Be socially aware, pro-active, involve in public and civic affairs. Be adequately prepared for the word of work or entrepreneurship or higher education. Be legally employable with potential for better earnings.

Be globally competitive.

Every graduate ofthe Enhanced Kto 12 BasicEducation program is an empowered individual who has learned, through a program that is rooted on sound educational principles and geared towards excellence, the foundations for learning throughout life, the competence to engage in work and be productive, the ability to coexist in fruitful harmony withlocal and globalcommunities, the capability to engage in autonomous critical thinking, and the capacity to transform others and one’s self.

What will the society gain from K to 12?
Kto 12 will facilitate an accelerated economic growth.
Kto 12 will facilitate mutual recognition of Filipino graduates and professionals in other countries. A better educated society provides a sound foundation for long-term socio-economic development. Several studies have shown that the improvements in the quality of education will increase GDP growth by as much as 2%. Studies in the UK,India and US show that additional years of schooling also have positive overall impact on society.

What Benefits will Individuals and Families get?
An enhanced curriculum will decongest academic workload.
Graduates will possess competencies and skills relevant to the job market. Graduates will be prepared for higher education.
Graduates will be able to earn higher wages and/or better prepared to start their own business. Graduates could now be recognized abroad.

What Do We Do From Now?
Creation of a Tasks Force to detail the K to 12 Implementation model Stakeholder Consultations
Curriculum Review and Enhancement
Financial Study
Teacher Training
Legislation
K to 12 IEC Campaign

INTRODUCTION
As we introduced you the K to 12 Curriculum, we BSE-IIIMathematics wanted to know its existence in selected school here at Balanga, Bataan and make a documentary report entitled: “The Onset of K to 12 Curriculum: Status, Challenges, and Problems” as a Final Requirement in Curriculum Development subject. We had chosen City of Balanga High School located at Phase III, Talisay, Balanga City, Bataan, whom Ms. Alma V. Poblete, DEM act as Principal II of the said school. Upon her request of formal letter from our university, Mrs. Lourdes S. Santos, Ed. D., our subject instructor, amd Mr. Rolliver M. Baciles, Ed. D, CESO, College of Education Dean gave us permission and signed the said letter on February 20, 2014.

Ms. Poblete welcomed us and took care of us while we are conducting this documentary. She let us explore all the facilities and gives us opportunity to interview some of the K to 12 teachers in COBHS. We have interviewed 8 teachers who handled K to 12 students. We have prepared some questionnaires for them relevant to the topic and sub-topics about K to 12.

Here are some of their answers in our open-ended questions:

A. 1. The Physical Environment
The Campus Landscape
The Physical Facilities
Laboratories and Equipment
Quesionnaires:
1. Do you maintain a learning environment of courtesy and respect for different learners, (eg, ability, culture, gender)? Why? Answers are as follows:
a. Yes, as much as possible , the teacher should maintain a learning environment of courtesy and respect for different learners, but there are times which demand what you call “informal setting” that makes the learners feel more comfortable in learning. b. Yes, this is to motivate students’ participation in the teaching-learning process. Summary:

All of the teachers we interviewed answered YES they maintain a learning environment of courtesy and respect for different learners.

2. What do you do to fix some problems about enrolling system in your school? Is there any difference between the numbers of students in BEC than of now – K to 12 Curriculum? Answers are as follows:

a. “So far we don’t have any problem regarding the system of enrollment in our school. No difference at all.” b. “The enlistment of students are alphabetically arranged, heterogenous-typed. They were given equal opportunities in giving their best in learning. There is no greater difference between the numbers of students in BEC than of now in K to 12.” c. “One of my roles in enrolling system is making the Grade VII enrollees read English text. I would just focus on this role perse as to contribute in fixing some problems about it. There is no difference at all.” d. “It’s not BEC or K to 12 that dictates the numbe of students in the classroom. It’s the capacity of the school facilities like the number of rooms as well available of teachers.” e. “We prepare signages on the steps of enrollment. None.” f. “Aside from the early registration, a comprehensive enrolment fom was used to be filled up by students. A system or process was followed during the enrolment period. No difference.” Summary:

The enlistment of students are alphabetically arranged, heterogenous-typed. They were given equal opportunities in giving their best in learning. There is no greater difference between the numbers of students in BEC than of now in K to 12. There is no difference at all.

3. How can the school handle to develop these skills to students? 3.1 Information, Media, and Technology Skills?
Answers are as follows:
a. “The school provided the ICT room and AVR. There is also Food Technology room and Science room.” b. “With the help of ICT subject, students develop their skills in technology.” c. “Procurement of needed faciities and equipment.”

d. “By conducting numerous seminars related to these that may give them chances to gain knowledge and develop their skills in it.” e. “They can be developed through exposures and hands on activities while giving the theories.” f. “Use of modern gadgets, and internet appropriately.”

Summary:
Information, Media, and Technology Skills in COBHS are developed by using their ICT and AVR rooms to maximize the use of technology and expose students on different hands-on activities.

3.2 Learning and Innovation Skills?
Answers are as follows:
a. “In Mathematics through the use of Board Games, UNO cards, Algebra Tiles and Counters.” b. “Every month each subject prepares culiminating activity.” c. “By research works.”
d. “The school should conduct various activities that target improving the innovation/creativity.” e. “Through participative learning.”
Summary:
The school prepares culminating activity. Some make research works as tool for learning skills, some make use of Ims or Instructional Materials in teaching.

3.3 Life and Career Skills?
Answers are as follows:
a. “In Third year level, the school provide seminar on career and guidance. In TLE, they provided contest to develop the skills in cooking, bartending, dressmaking and baking.” b. “Relate the lessons in real life situations.”

c. “By hands on activities.”
d. “The school should have career guidance for students.” Summary:
Seminars on Career Guidance, and hands on activities and relating lessons life situations.

3.4 Effective Communication Skills?
Answers are as follows:
a. “The school should strenghten and push through the activities that may improve communication skills of students, especially in Filipino and English department.” b. “By speech contest and group works.”

c. “Let the students discover the lesson and explore their answers. Let them give their ideas and opinions about the topics.” c. “Teachers ask students to read books and magazines during their vacant periods.” Summary:

Teachers sees the vacant time as reading time, and some put it in speech contest, gradually students as they particpate they will develop communication skills effectively.

4. Do you have some laboratories and add equipments for student to use upon their Science Classes or even in their subject using laboratory works? (i.e, in Science: Chemistry; in English: Speech Lab) Answers are as follows:

a. “Yes, we have some laboratories like Science Lab, but no Math Lab yet, but we have tools and quipment that we use that aid in teaching the subject.” b. “Not sufficient due to lack of funds.”
Summary:
COBHS do have some laboratories like ICT Lab and Science Lab but that is not sufficient due to lack of funds.

5. Do you have contest such as “Most Beautiful Classroom, ” and the likes, for teachers and students actively participate into maintenance of the facilities? Answers are as follows:
a. “Yes! This is to encourage teachers and students to maintain the school facilities in order.” b. “Yes, yearly we launch the contest entitles “Best Homeroom” which motivates all teachers to maintain the cleanliness and orderliness of their respective classrooms.” Summary:

Most of the teachers answered YES. They have contest entitled “Best Homeroom” to maintain the cleanliness and orderliness of the respective classrooms. They do have prizes to motivate all teachers and students to participate.

2. The Social Environment
School Curricular and Extra-Curricular Activities
Awards and Achievements
Classroom Practices
1. Do you initiate other learning approaches whose needs have not been met by usual approaches? Answers are as follows:
a. For the principal’s answer, she said None.
b. “Yes, there should be appropriate intervention to be done in order to meet the needs of the learning approaches.” Summary:
Most teachers initiate other learning approaches whose needs have not been met by usual approaches. 2. How do you design your school or classroom?
Answers are as follows:
a. “Teachers design their classrooms on their own.” (Principal) b. “I decorate and design my classroom with regards to my field of specialization taught. The classroom reflects the subject being taught by the adviser.” c. “Quarterly, based on module. Space, according to number of students.” d. “Room that is conducive and comfortable for students.” Summary:

Teachers wanted their classroom favorable to students. Some design their rooms according to their field of specialization. The classroom reflects the subject being taught by the adviser. 3. How many awards and achievements do the school have this year? How do the stakeholders such as parents, teachers and students contribute to this? Answers are as follows:

a. “Many to mention.”
b. “They contribute to these through their active involvement and participation to our school activities.” c. “Students do their share by sparing time in review and practice. Teachers act as coaches/trainers. Parents give the financial and moral support.” Summary:

Students do their share by sparing time in review and practice. Teachers act as coaches/trainers. Parents give the financial and moral support. 4. What can COBHS can offer to upcoming enrollees? Do the school have specialization prior to different subjects? (i.e, SPA, Orgs and Clubs) Answers are as follows:

a. “The school will offer SPS or Special Program for Sport. Vrious organizations and clubs have been practiced even before long.” b. “Night class or tutorials for those who have jobs in the morning.” Summary:

COBHS will offer SPS in this coming school year. This means that the school is now on its turn to have specialization for Sport. Since the location of the school is near to the Open field they can actually accomodate SPS.

5. How do you manage students who are active in Extra-Curricular Activities, for instance they were representatives in an sport event, who were not able to attend classes? Answers are as follows:
a. “Give them take home activities to cope with the lesson.” b. “They are entitled to make-up quizzes and activities. They are also given extra poins in their grades.” c. “They are given enrichment activities and modules for them to cope up with the lesson.” d. “Give extra points or just retention of previous grades.” Summary:

Based on their answers, they give great consideration for their students to cope up with the missed lessons. They are willing to provide remedial or modules or even retention of student’s grades.

B. The Curricular Design
1. Description of the Curriculum
2. The Guiding Philosophy/Principle
3. The Psychological/Social and Historical Bases
4. The Educational Objectives
1. What can you say about K to 12 Curriculum?
Answers are as follows:
a. “If it will be properly/honestly implemented, it will improve the educational system in our country.” b. “This has always two sides, boon or bane. I can’t react to if it’s a boon or bane since it has just started and the result can only be felt, when this curriculum produces K to 12 graduates. Let’s see and wait. For now, it’s too early to judge.” c. “Too many topic or skills to be imparted to the students that is impossible to finish in one shool year. Students are not prepared for K-12. Summary:

It’s too early to judge, the result can only be felt when this curriculum produces K-12 graduates.

2. What are the guiding philosophy/principles of the school? Of the teachers? (Rationalism, Realism, Humanism, Moralism, Pragmatism, Essentialism) Answers are as follows:
a. “Definitely, there is no specific guiding principle or philosophy which is used by a school. A school, to be succesful should combine all these principles to be able to be effective place of learning, where students will not only learn few things but also a lot of things that make them holistic individuals.” b. “Constructivism is our guiding principle. Self-learning among students.” c. “All”

Summary:
City of Balanga High School (COBHS) uses all guiding principles of the school especially constructivism and realism.

3. What are the:
3.1 Psychological Bases?
Answers are as follows:
a. “The psychological bases of the school refer to how the school responds to different behavior and mental processes of each student.”

3.2 Social Bases?
Answers are as follows:
a. “The social bases of the schoolof the school focus on how the school develops the social skills of the students and how the learning will be passed and taught to them, conforming to the social expectations, culture, tradition, customs and the likes.”

3.3 Historical Bases of the School?
Answers are as follows:
a. “The patterns and the pre-requisite subjects were implemented.”

4. What are the educational objectives of the school?
Answers are as follows:
a. “Produce viable youth ready to tertiary level and well equipped with skills be functional individuals” b. “To uplift morally upright citizens”
Summary:
COBHS depends on the Mission and Vission of the school.

5. How do the members of the academe comply under curriculum design? Answers are as follows:
a. “Using the guidelines that were given, it was implemented accordingly.” b. “We singly comply with the mandate of the DepEd.”
c. “Attendance in the mass training participation for the new curriculum.”
Summary:
The school comply with the mandate of the DepEd protocol. C. The Curriculum in Action
(Justification/Manifestations of Curricular Design)
1. Do you deliver accurate and updated content knowledge using approriate methodologies, approaches and strategies? If you are the principal, do you update your faculty members with accordance of the use of new strategies in teaching? Answers are as follows:

a. “Yes, like my principal, I will also update the faculty members in new strategies of teaching.” b. “Yes, for them to be equipped with various strategies/methodologies for facilitating learning.”

2. Do you cultivate good study habits through appropriate activities and projects? Answers are as follows:
a. “Yes, good study habbits should be taught to students by giving them assignments/homework and projects however, cultivating this kind of habit to them is a tedious task since there are lot of factors that hinder them from having so.” b. “Yes, through homework/assignments, take home activities and group performance.”

3. Do you have remedial classes?
Answers are as follows:

a. “Yes, in order to masterthe skills in each learning competency.” b. “Yes, through ICL.”

4. How do you engage and sustain learners’ interest in the subject especially in Mathematics? Answers are as follows:
a. “By using varied teaching strategies that will be done by the learners.” b. “Through schematic illustration, games, demo and the likes.” c. “Adding humor in discussion.”
d. “Using innovations in teaching Mathematics encourage them n cooperative learning and group activities.”

5. Since K to 12 Curriculum is now the curriculum used, how do you assess your students? When do you give assessments? Answers are as follows:
a. “Snon-traditional assessments are also used in K-12, we give assessments if the students understood the lesson.” b. “After every topic, a quiz and a long test were given.” c. “We assess them using Knowledge, Process, Understanding and Performance product (KPUP). d. “They can cope easily if studying is the focus. However, if they will not attend classes, learning is controlled. Every time needed.

D. Evaluation/Insights and Realization with Theoretical Bases Philosophical Foundations, Legal Basis, Insights/Reflections General Questions:
1. What are the status of the teachers, students and parents about the On-set of K to 12 Curriculum? Answers are as follows:
a. “Whatever the comments are, you cannot change what is in a law. But still the teachers, students and parents are still optimistic about the program of K-12.” b. “Teachers were somewhat confused at first.”

c. “Accepted.”
d. “They have no choice but to coply and follow.”

2. What are the challenges do the school, the teachers and students are facing about this curriculum? Answers are as follows:
a. For the school, it is insufficient facilities particularly the coming Senior High School.” b. “Other school facilities such as Math Laboratory, there is no available room yet.” c. “Adjustments when the curriculum was introduce.”

d. “Some modules are not ready during opening of the classes.”

3. What are the problems occuring during this change of the curriculum? Answers are as follows:
a. “Readiness of students especially in high school.”
b. “Problems were encountered during transition period only.” c. “Students are not yet prepared for K-12 because of their previous curriculum which is BEC.” d. “Insufficient learning materials.”

4. What can the school heads and other members of the academe do to resolve the arising problems? Answers are as follows:
a. “Trainings.”
b. “We use the web(internet) to download learning materials.”

5. Bonus questions:
Give some quotations about K to 12, or of the change in the curriculum. “Just as everything on earth is interconnected, so do the educational curriculum if we mean to thrive.”

Legal Basis:

The Enhanced K to 12 Basic Education Program seeks to provide for a quality 12-year basic education program that each Filipino is entitled to. This is consistent with ArticleX I V, Section 2(1) of the 1987 Philippine Constitution which states that “The State shall establish, maintain, and support a complete, adequate, and integrated system of education relevant to the needs of the people and society.”

“Change doesn’t require progress but progress requires change.”

Republic of the Philippines
BATAAN PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY
Don M. Banzon Avenue Poblacion
City of Balanga, Bataan
Balanga Campus

College of Education
(047)237-4688

DOCUMENTARY REPORT

The Onset of K to 12 Curriculum:
Status, Challenges, and Problems
C. 1. The Physical Environment
The Campus Landscape
The Physical Facilities
Laboratories and Equipment

2. The Social Environment
School Curricular and Extra-Curricular Activities
Awards and Achievements
Classroom Practices

D. The Curricular Design
1. Description of the Curriculum
2. The Guiding Philosophy/Principle
3. The Psychological/Social and Historical Bases
4. The Educational Objectives
C. The Curriculum in Action
(Justification/Manifestations of Curricular Design) D. Evaluation/Insights and Realization with Theoretical Bases A. 1. The Physical Environment
The Campus Landscape
The Physical Facilities
Laboratories and Equipment
Quesionnaires:
6. Do you maintain a learning environment of courtesy and respect for different learners, (eg, ability, culture, gender)? Why? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. What do you do to fix some problems about enrolling system in your school? Is there any difference between the numbers of students in BEC than of now – K to 12 Curriculum? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. How can the school handle to develop these skills to students? 3.1 Information, Media, and Technology Skills?

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

3.2 Learning and Innovation Skills?
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3.3 Life and Career Skills?

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3.4 Effective Communication Skills?

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. Do you have some laboratories and add equipments for student to use upon their Science Classes or even in their subject using laboratory works? (i.e, in Science: Chemistry; in English: Speech Lab) Why? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. Do you have contest such as “Most Beautiful Classroom, ” and the likes, for teachers and students actively participate into maintenance of the facilities? Why? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

2. The Social Environment
School Curricular and Extra-Curricular Activities
Awards and Achievements
Classroom Practices
6. Do you initiate other learning approaches whose needs have not been met by usual approaches? Why? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. How do you design your school or classroom? Why?

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. How many awards and achievements do the school have this year? How do the stakeholders such as parents, teachers and students contribute to this? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. What can COBHS offer to upcoming enrollees? Does the school have specialization prior to different subjects? (i.e, SPA, Orgs and Clubs) ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. How do you manage students who are active in Extra-Curricular Activities, for instance they were representatives in an sport event, who were not able to attend classes? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

B. The Curricular Design
1. Description of the Curriculum
2. The Guiding Philosophy/Principle
3. The Psychological/Social and Historical Bases
4. The Educational Objectives
6. What can you say about K to 12 Curriculum? Is it a boon or bane for you? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. What are the guiding philosophy/principles of the school? Of the teachers? (Rationalism, Realism, Humanism, Moralism, Pragmatism, Essentialism) ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. What are the:

3.1 Psychological Bases?
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3.2 Social Bases?

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8.2 Historical Bases of the School?

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. What are the educational objectives of the school?

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. How do the members of the academe comply under curriculum design? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

C. The Curriculum in Action
(Justification/Manifestations of Curricular Design)
6. Do you deliver accurate and updated content knowledge using approriate methodologies, approaches and strategies? Why? If you are the principal, do you update your faculty members with accordance of the use of new strategies in teaching? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 7. Do you cultivate good study habits through appropriate activities and projects? Why? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 8. Do you have remedial classes? Why?

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 9. How do you engage and sustain learners’ interest in the subject especially in Mathematics? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 10. Since K to 12 Curriculum is now the curriculum used, how do you assess your students? When do you give assessments? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

D. Evaluation/Insights and Realization with Theoretical Bases Philosophical Foundations, Legal Basis, Insights/Reflections General Questions:

6. What are the status of the teachers, students and parents about the

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