9.1. Finding and Gathering Information¶
Linux reports things in a very detailed way. There are several places to look when you encounter problems with your system, most of which are standard to Linux systems in general, and some of which are relevant to openSUSE systems. The two most important system logs are /var/log/boot.msg and/var/log/messages. A list of the most frequently checked log files follows with the description of their typical purpose. Paths containing~ refer to the current user's home directory. Table 9.1. Log Files¶
Messages from the desktop applications currently running.
Log files from AppArmor, see Part “Confining Privileges with Novell AppArmor” (↑Security Guide) for detailed information. /var/log/boot.msg
Messages from the kernel reported during the boot process.
Messages from the mail system.
Ongoing messages from the kernel and system log daemon (when running). /var/log/NetworkManager
Log file from NetworkManager to collect problems with network connectivity /var/log/samba/
Directory containing Samba server and client log messages.
Hardware messages from the SaX display and KVM system.
All messages from the kernel and system log daemon with the “warning” level or higher. /var/log/wtmp
Binary file containing user login records for the current machine session. View it with last. /var/log/Xorg.*.log
Various start-up and runtime logs from the X Window system. It is useful for debugging failed X start-ups. /var/log/YaST2/
Directory containing YaST's actions and their results.
Log file of zypper.
Apart from log files, your machine also supplies you with information about the running system. See Table 9.2: System Information With the /proc File System Table 9.2. System Information With the /proc File System¶ File
Contains processor information, including its type, make, model, and performance. /proc/dma
Shows which DMA channels are currently being used.
Shows which interrupts are in use, and how many of each have been in use. /proc/iomem
Displays the status of I/O (input/output) memory.
Shows which I/O ports are in use at the moment.
Displays memory status.
Displays the individual modules.
Displays devices currently mounted.
Shows the partitioning of all hard disks.
Displays the current version of Linux.
Apart from the /proc file system, the Linux kernel exports information with the sysfs module, an in-memory filesystem. This module represents kernel objects, their attributes and relationships. For more information aboutsysfs, see the context of udev in Chapter 19, Dynamic Kernel Device Management with udev (↑Reference).Table 9.3 contains an overview of the most common directories under /sys. Table 9.3. System Information With the /sys File System¶ File
Contains subdirectories for each block device discovered in the system. Generally, these are mostly disk type devices. /sys/bus
Contains subdirectories for each physical bus type.
Contains subdirectories grouped together as a functional types of devices (like graphics, net, printer, etc.) /sys/device
Contains the global device hierarchy.
9.2. Installation Problems ¶Installation problems are situations when a machine fails to install. It may fail entirely or it may not be able to start the graphical installer. This section highlights some of the typical problems you may run into, and offers possible solutions or workarounds for these kinds of situations. 9.2.1. Checking Media¶ If you encounter any problems using the openSUSE installation media, check the integrity of your installation media. Boot from the media and choose Check Installation Media from the boot menu. In a running system, start YaST...
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