The Neuromuscular System function to achieve movement at the joints Kinesiology
G.C. Foster Collage of Physical Education & Sports
April 13, 2015
What is the Neuromuscular System?
According to research the neuromuscular system is to make the body move, a signal travels along neurons nerve cells from the brain to the spinal cord. There, "lower motor neurons" pass the message on to the muscles. The end of every lower motor neuron releases a chemical, which is received by receptors in the muscle tissue. Once enough of the chemical has been received, the muscle is able to move. Sometimes this process malfunctions and a person develops a neuromuscular disorder. Symptoms include muscular weakness, spasms, cramps and pain. The ability to breathe or swallow is sometimes affected. For example, some neuromuscular disorders are muscular dystrophy, spinal muscular atrophy and Lou Gehrig’s disease. Neuromuscular control, as defined by Myers and Lephart, is an unconscious activation of dynamic restrains occurring in preparation for and in response to joint motion and loading for the purpose of maintaining functional joint stability. The neuromuscular control system consist of a complex interaction between the sensory, motor, and central integration and processing centers of the central nervous system (CNS), collectively termed the sensorimotor system. Because of the relative complexity of neuromuscular control, we present this information using a whole-part-whole model, with the objective of providing the reader with an understanding of the function of each “subsystem” in the sensorimotor system, and then how the subsystem are integrated to maintain functional joint stability. (Myers & Lephart, 2006) Actions at Neuromuscular Junctions (NMJs)
A neuromuscular junction is a synapse between a motor neuron and skeletal muscle. This lesson describes the events of synaptic transmission leading to contraction of skeletal muscle. Myasthenia gravis is described as a neuromuscular disease. Synaptic Transmission
In order for skeletal muscle to contract, it must first be stimulated by a motor neuron. The space between the motor neuron and the skeletal muscle cell is simply referred to as a synapse. More specifically, the synapse between a motor neuron and a skeletal muscle cell is referred to as a myoneural or neuromuscular junction. If you break down these terms, the names will make better sense. 'Myo'- means muscle, and 'neuro'- refers to nerves. Regardless of the name, the synapse is a real space across which the excitatory impulse must travel before the muscle contracts. Synaptic transmission includes all the events within the synapse leading to excitation of the muscle. Let me make a quick note that other synapses occurs between other cells - for example, nerve to nerve and nerve to gland. For example, the adult human brain is thought to contain 100-500 trillion synaptic connections, and those are in between neurons. In this lesson, we will describe the anatomy of a neuromuscular junction and then discuss the events of synaptic transmission. Think of the neurotransmitter-receptor relationship as a lock and a key, where only one key will fit that lock. The synaptic cleft refers to the space between the two cells and is only about 20 nanometers wide. It is very thin.
Manske, C. R., (2006). Postsurgical Orthopedic Sports Rehabilitation: Knee & Shoulder Retrieved from: http://www.ivyroses.com/HumanBody/Muscles/Muscle_Anatomy-Neuromuscular-Junction.php (April 10, 2015)
References: Manske, C. R., (2006). Postsurgical Orthopedic Sports Rehabilitation: Knee & Shoulder
Retrieved from: http://www.ivyroses.com/HumanBody/Muscles/Muscle_Anatomy-Neuromuscular-Junction.php (April 10, 2015)
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