The Neolithic Period

Topics: Neolithic, Domestication, Stone Age Pages: 2 (438 words) Published: October 29, 2014
The term Neolithic means New Stone Age, and this was a period where human technology developed. One of the most important developments in human history was the discovery of farming. This was known as the Neolithic Revolution. In addition to learning to farm, humans learned to domesticate animals. This brought about a drastic change for mankind.

Once man learned to farm, they began to settle. Permanent settlements started to develop along river valleys due to the fact that rivers provided water for irrigation. Farmers began to produce food that they could share with everyone, which meant that not everyone needed to farm. People in the Neolithic period started to specialize in other skills, which included making tools and homes as well as creating jewelry and artwork.

Unlike the small family groups that were common in the Old Stone Age, people of the New Stone Age settled in large city complexes. One example is Catal Hoyuk, which was excavated in 1958. Catal Hoyuk was made up of domestic buildings and had no public spaces. The city had a population of about 5,000 to 8,000 people, and the houses were made with bricks and mud. Most houses were accessed through holes in the ceilings, which also was the only source of ventilation. People traversed through the city by walking along the rooftops of the houses.

The excavation of Catal Hoyuk revealed that the city was rich with evidence of artwork. Jewelry and figurines were found around the settlement, and walls of houses were decorated with frescoes and reliefs of animals. In some cases, heads were removed from a human skeleton and were plastered and painted to recreate the faces of the deceased. These discoveries suggest that the people of Catal Hoyuk had a religion that was heavily based on symbols.

As civilizations grew and food production became more common, it became necessary to domesticate animals. People took into account that an animal has the ability to be used as a worker, as well as a source...
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