| |2009 | | |Coventry University | | | | | |Delawar Khan |
|Essay Title: The Need for Humanitarian Intervention in Sudan-Darfur crisis | |Key issues in Peace and Reconciliation Studies (Course Module :Mo3 ISS | |Date of Submission: January 10, 2010) |
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Table of contents
“The Right to protect and the Need for Intervention”
Success, challenges and constraints in the AU intervention
Recent Development in the Region
The main purpose of this essay is to conduct an analysis of the crisis in Sudan with particular focus on Darfur. This analysis has touched different aspects of the conflict including justification for humanitarian interventions on the basis “The Right to Protect” In-depth analysis of constraints, challenges and risks of failure to protect. Additionally; I have also analysed and identified gaps and shortcomings in the United Nations and African Union efforts and their respective mandates to ensure protection of refuges and delivery of humanitarian assistance to affected population. To write this essay, I have explored and searched for different available materials on the topic in the Library, examined different relevant articles in the journals, news papers and websites. As author, I have strived to maintain neutrality and impartiality. Additionally; phrases and paragraphs coherence and logical order have been given optimum importance in narrating the main section of the essay. Sudan is the biggest Country in Africa, width multiple religious, ethnic and socio-economic divides between Muslims and Christians, Arab and African, nomad and farmer. Sudan is confronting with three main conflicts i.e. the south, Darfur (west) and east which reflects these to varying degrees, aggravated by struggles over natural resources. Though oil was discovered in southern Sudan in 1978, the majority of Sudanese remain desperately poor.
Sudan’s longest civil war began in 1983, largely using the Muslim north against the Christian and Animist south, and killing at least 2 million people and displacing a further 4 million. Over time, it developed into a national conflict, with the rebels incorporating large groups of Muslims from throughout the north, and the government allying with many non Muslim southerners (Iyob,Khadiagala, 2006).
The north-south war formally ended in January 2005 with the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) which incorporated the former rebel group, the Sudanese People’s Liberation Army/Movement (SPLA/M) into a Government of National Unity (GNU). Deliberate barrier of the CPA implementation by the NCP, particularly the areas of Abyei, oil revenue sharing and the demarcation of the north-south border, are putting the hard fought peace at risk.
In eastern Sudan, a peace agreement (the Eastern Sudan Peace Agreement-ESPA) between the Government of Sudan and the Eastern Front rebel group was signed in Asmara in October 2006. In mid 2003, the struggle for land and power in the western region of Darfur intensified, with government supported Arab Janjaweed militia undertaking a policy of ethnic cleansing towards the civilian population of African Tribes. The attacks by the government...
References: Bellamy, A, J. 2005, “Responsibility to protect or Trojan horse”, the crisis in Darfur and humanitarian intervention after Iraq, Ethics and International Affairs, 19(2), pp.31-54.
Beitz, C. 1979, Bounded Morality: Justice and the State in the World Politics, 33(3), pp.405-424.
Coebergh, J. 2005, Sudan: The genocide has killed more than the tsunami, Parliamentary Brief, 7.
Economist, 2006, “Will they be rescued “, Vol. 380, issue 8496.
Iyob, R., and Khadiagala, G, M. 2006, Sudan,” The Elusive Quest for Peace” pp. 133-166
International Commission of Inquiry, 2005, Report of the International Commission of Inquiry on Darfur at www.reliefweb.int/library/documents/2005/ici-sud-25feb.pdf
Human Rights watch, 2004Darfur: Donors Must Address Atrocities Fuelling Crisis’, New York at www.hrw.org/english/docs/2004/09/27/darfur9390.htm
New York Times, 2008, “China, in New Role, Presses Sudan on Darfur”
Prendergast, J. 1997, “Crisis Response”, Humanitarian Band-Aids in Sudan and Somalia, pp.3-44
UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, 2004, Situation of Human Rights in the Darfur Region of the Sudan.
Wafula, Okumu, AU/UN intervention: challenge of protecting civilian populations and Ending conflict in Darfur, at http://www.africafiles.org/article.asp?ID=21207
Washington Post, 2004, U.S
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