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The Navajo Indian and the Apache Indian

By Mercedes-Torres Oct 14, 2014 1397 Words
The Navajo Indian and the Apache Indian
In the United States there are Native American Indians living among the people in redundant with the United States. The Native American Indians have different tribes and most of the tribes would come together to create a one tribe. Most of the tribes are still living among the people and other tribes vanished. As the Navajo tribe and Apache tribe have several groups of tribe in the bloodline. The Navajo Indian and the Apache Indian differ in the histories, the cultures, and traditions. The Navajo Indians history begun in the 1500s and the meaning of Navajo are “The Great Ones” or “Tewa Navahu as cultivated lands.” Between the Navajo Tribe and other Native American tribes; the Navajo Tribe is known to be the largest tribe. The Navajo are mainly dwelling in New Mexico and Arizona. In the 1600s, the Spanish came into the Navajo territory but the Navajo Tribe was stealing with sheep and horses from the Spanish. The Navajo Tribe and the Spanish began to set up a trading post within the homeland that both share, and traded homemade items and the hunting foods. The Navajo did not know the Spaniards and the Mexicans would take violent action, because of the raids on the camps. Then the Spanish sent in their military to evacuate the Navajo Tribe. Only two/thirds surrendered and moved to a different territory. Then the rest of the Navajo Tribe refuse to give up the territory and hid into the mountains and canyons to avoid being caught. Around the 1800s, the Navajo finally settle into a dubiety on Fort Sumter, New Mexico. When the Navajo tribe settled they began to raise their own sheep also the soldiers give them prosperous and profitable edge to the territory. The United States Government established a Permanent Trust Fund in 1984 with the Navajo Nation Council. As the Navajo tribe deposits twelve percent of all revenues received each year as the total land of 17.5 million acres and to discover oil. Today, the Navajo tribe is living strong and passing on to next generation to keep up with the family’s heritage. Conversely, the Apache Tribe was living in the Alaskan region, Canada, and portions of the Southwest. The tribe migrated towards South of the United States and divided into two basic regions in the Rio Grande. Apache were nomadic which they traveled around and do not settle down in one city. Supposedly, the tribe was the first out of the other tribes to learn how to ride horses. Around 1700 the tribe went towards the Kansas plains to grow watermelon, beans, and corns. The Comanche tribe to over the territory and defeated the Apache and made them move towards the New Mexico, Arizona, Texas, and Mexico. During 1730s, the Apache and Spaniards went into battle for a long time and caused many deaths. In 1743, the Spanish leader finally agreed to set an area of Texas to the Apache to live so the battle was over. Then July 1869, a Major named John Green of the United States first Cavalry led a scouting journey of 120 or more troops into the White Mountains near the east central region of Arizona. The U.S. troops were seeking to kill or capture the Apache tribe and the journey headed up north where the U.S. has to cross three different rivers just to get to the site of Fort Apache. Major Green met with the Apache leaders Escapa known as Miguel, Eskininla known as Diablo, Pedro, and Eskiltesela in the White Mountains during November. Major Green and the Apache leaders “agreed to creation of a military post and reservation, and directed Green to the confluence of the East and North Forks of the White River.” Around 1923 the Fort Apache became a home for the Bureau of Indian Affairs’ Theodore Roosevelt Indian Boarding school. The majority of the students at the school were Apache in the 1930s and until today the continuous of the Theodore Roosevelt School. The Tribal Council selected an administration of a school board to serve as a middle school. As today there are approximately 15,000 Apache tribe and many are living on their tribal lands, and others are living all over the country. The Unified School District, the Community School, and other schools offer public education. All the schools are operated by the Indian Education Division of the Bureau of Indian Affairs and the East Fork Lutheran Mission School. The Apache students attend to Arizona three state universities, school, and community college around the country. Navajo culture is focus on family life and events in their everyday lifestyle; like games and traditions were emerged from the love of the land. When long winter night came along the seclusion of the reservation has brought most of the customs and activities to entertain themselves. The culture is particularly rich in the ceremony and ritual as in treatment of ills, mental, and physical. As the Navajo has a saying “made of nine of their great nine day ceremonies.” As for the rest of the days are less important ceremonies, because of the performance the tribe do to prey to the gods. During the ceremonies the tribe does dry-painting or sand altars to depicting the characters and incidents of myths. The sandpaintings known as dry-painting called “places where the gods come and go” In the act of a Navajo tribe life are building of the hogan, the planting of crops, and the arts is ceremonial in nature as each being attended with songs and prayers. The Navajo legends have a different song as a prayer to the gods or the supernatural gods who take care of the tribe. When every song is sang called “Blessingway Song” in ceremonies to cure the sickness and to protect the families, crops, or herds. The song meant bless for a long happy life, a new hogan, and a new marriage in the Navajo tribe. Nevertheless, the Apache tribe is almost similar to the Navajo tribe, like the dance, songs, and the prayers. Apache tribe has different type of rituals for certain events as the tribe called it “as a coming-of-age ceremony” saying L. Kelley. Then on regular basis for the Apache tribe they perform spiritual rituals as to thank the spirits for good harvest. The Apache tribe has two different types of formal and informal traditions. Apache formal tradition are for rituals and dances during ceremonies which is informal. Both formal and informal tradition is meant to communicate with spirits or gods. When the Apache dances as in the Sundown Ritual for women to honored that person and could dance for more than five days without non-stop. During ceremonies they would dance from sundown until the moon was out like midnight to pray and give thanks to the spirits. As for the Apache dancers wear the ankle wraps with bells on the wraps when performing the traditional rituals. When the bells start to jingling to the beat of the drums; the Apache tribe said the bells would awaken the spirits and start to communicate with them. The performances of the Apache tribe can be perform anywhere with two or more tribal members were together and not just around a fire. During the rituals, Apache tribe would form their own worship to the spirits who passed away. The Apache would worship to the spirits so the spirits would bring peace to the tribe. The Navajo tribe and the Apache tribe are very different from each other but they both have something in common. Which both history tribes got into a war with Spaniards and both lost or surrounds. Then both have the same dance ritual but to different gods in many different ways. The Navajo has a many different ways of communicating with the gods or the spirits like sandpainting. Today as for generation passes on both tribes does ceremonies and rituals still goes on.

References
American Indian Originals (n.d.). Apache Indian Culture: History, customs, and beliefs. Retrieved from http://www.americanindianoriginals.com/apache-culture.html Indians.org (2012). American Indians Articles: Navajo Indians. Retrieved from http://www.indians.org/articles/navajo-indians.html The Navajo Nation (2004). Navajo Culture: The Navajo today. Window Rock, Arizona. Economic Development. Retrieved from http://www.navajobusiness.com/fastFacts/Culture.htm White Mountain Apache History (n.d.). The White Mountain Apache Tribe Today. Retrieved from http://www.wmat.us/wmahistory.shtml

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