April 22, 2014
The Mughal Empire
In the 1526, Babur founded the greatest and the last empire in the Indian history, the Mughal Empire. Mogul is an English word derived from Mughal, which means a hugely powerful person. The Mughals were Muslims who ruled a country with a large Hindu majority. Babur, Abu Akbar, Jahangir and Jahan Aurangzeb are the emperors that aid in the formation of the Mughal Empire. The Mughal Empire ruled most of India and Pakistan in the 16th and 17th centuries (The Rise of Mughal India, 1610). Babur father and mother came from the Timur’s and Genghis Khan’s Kingdoms respectively. After conquering the Delhi Sultan Ibrahim Sha Lodi in 1526, he named his empire Timurid that is the Mughal Dynasty. This one empire left a significant impact in India. The Mughal Empire lasted almost for three centuries, between 1526AD to 1857AD, in history; it is one of the largest centralized empires. This one empire had a considerable influence in ancient India and even in the post-India today (Faruqui, 489). However, this empire was unable to last long, it come down after only three centuries. From the mid-1500s to the mid-1700s, the Mughal Empire dominated most of the Indian subcontinent. At its peak, this Muslim dynasty was one of the wealthiest in the Islamic world (Esposito 1). Western Civilization is often defined as man’s ability to manipulate the environment, which means achieving and maintaining power. Power is the ability to influence or control the behavior of people, through various leadership, Ideology and policies made throughout the empire, the Mughals were able to achieved and maintain power during their era.
Within every empire, there is always a leader that set forth the commandments to the people of the empire. Babur the first Mughal Emperor, was a descendent of Genghis Khan and Tamerlaine. Babur succeeded his father as ruler of the state of Farghana in Turkestan when he was only 12, although he was swiftly deposed by older relatives. In 1504, Babur moved in Afghanistan and then move on to India later, apparently at the invitation of some Indian princes who wanted to dispose of their ruler. Babur disposed of the ruler, and decided to take over himself and be a leader. Under Babur leadership, Hinduism was tolerated and new Hindu temples were built with his permission. Trade with the rest of the Islamic world, especially Persia and through Persia to Europe, was encouraged. Babur brought a broad-minded, confident Islam from central Asia. His first act after conquering Delhi was to forbid the killing of cows because that was offensive to Hindus. Emperor Akbar was famously very tolerant, perhaps due to his Astuteness. He probably realized that some of the most effective forms of power occur through trust and respect for a leader, and not solely fear. Akbar was an excellent fighter and battle leader- he was logical, courageous and ambitious, which are all good qualities to have in a high up warrior such as himself. Neither was he afraid to be violent and gruesome if it achieved his aims. He used the weapon of fear to his advantage by setting an example of what would happen to others Akbar ensured that prisoners of war were not forced to become Muslims, which would have seemed very tolerant. Another example of Akbar's tolerance is that he abolished 2 taxes that had previously been made to make life difficult for the Hindus- the ‘jizya’ poll tax, and in 1563 the tax on pilgrims to Hindu shrines. He let Hindus build temples freely and celebrate public festivals, in addition to giving many leading Hindus high ranks in the Mughal civil services. Akbar displayed outstanding military and political skills and established a lasting reputation as the greatest Mughal ruler. When he died in 1605, his empire consisted of Afghanistan and most of India (Esposito 3). Even more impressive than his military conquests was his ability to unite the people...
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