The Mozart Effect Ia

Topics: Informed consent, Experiment, Classical music Pages: 16 (3411 words) Published: June 16, 2013
Abstract
This experiment was an alteration of Elizabeth Rauscher’s 1993 study on the Mozart effect. Instead of testing spatial ability, this experiment aimed to determine the effect of classical music on recalling, for the purpose of improving studying methods. We hypothesized that exposure to classical music during the encoding stage would have a significant, positive effect on recall. The participants for this experiment were an opportunity sample of high school seniors, 17-18 years of age. In an independent sample design, the participants were separated into two groups and asked to memorize and later recall a list of 10 two digit numbers. Both groups received the same list and had the same period of time to complete the task. The experimental group, however, was exposed to classical music during encoding, while the control group memorized the list in silence. The independent variable was the atmosphere of encoding and the dependent variable was the amount of numbers correctly recalled. After statistical analysis, the results showed that classical music does not have a significant effect on recall, thus the null hypothesis was accepted.

Table of Contents
Title Page …………………………………………………………………………………... 1 Abstract …………………………………………………………………………………….. 2 Table of Contents …………………………………………………………………………... 3 Introduction ………………………………………………………………………………… 4 Method ……………………………………………………………………………………... 5 Results ……………………………………………………………………………………… 7 Discussion ………………………………………………………………………………….. 9 References ………………………………………………………………………………….. 11 Appendix A ………………………………………………………………………………… 12 Appendix B ………………………………………………………………………………… 13 Appendix C ………………………………………………………………………………… 14 Appendix D ………………………………………………………………………………… 15 Appendix E ………………………………………………………………………………… 16 Appendix F ………………………………………………………………………………… 17 Appendix G ………………………………………………………………………………… 18 Appendix H ………………………………………………………………………………… 19 Appendix I …………………………………………………………………………………. 20 Appendix J …………………………………………………………………………………. 21 Appendix K …………………………………………………………………………………. 22

Introduction
Many studies have been conducted to support the theory that memory is malleable. A positive result would indicate that the process by which humans encode, store, and retrieve information can be modified in such a way that may benefit recall. This means quicker remembrance of encoded material. In the past, many researchers have aimed to discover a method to manipulate memory. Today, there is still much to be learned about the way in which memory works, but myriad approaches have been introduced with the purpose of improving the process. These include one known as the Mozart effect.

The Mozart effect suggests that mental ability notably increases after listening to music from Mozart. The term was first used by Dr. Alfred Tomatis who studied the effect of Mozart's music on childhood development. He hypothesized that the ear’s main function was to develop the unborn brain, therefore listening to high frequencies such as those found in Mozart’s violin concertos could energize the brain. Dr. Tomatis prescribed sonic therapy to his patients and concluded that auditory experiences could occur before birth and exposing prenatal children to Mozart would help the development of the nervous system.

In 1993, Elizabeth Rauscher aimed to test the effect of music on the brain’s spatial ability. To test this she instructed college students to perform different tasks requiring spatial reasoning in different environments. In one environment, they were exposed to Mozart sonata for two pianos, in the other they listened to relaxation instructions, and the last they were instructed to complete the task in silence. The students' scores on the test were significantly higher after they listened to the Mozart sonata. These results were controversial as the effect was temporary and the results were not always replicated.

Likewise, Maria Spychiger...
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