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The Market for Gas Turbine Electrical Power Generation

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The Market for Gas Turbine Electrical Power Generation
Product Code #F646

A Special Focused Market Segment Analysis by:

Industrial & Marine Turbine Forecast - Gas & Steam Turbines

Analysis 1 The Market for Gas Turbine Electrical Power Generation 2011 - 2020
Table of Contents
Executive Summary .................................................................................................................................................2 Introduction................................................................................................................................................................3 Format and Methodology........................................................................................................................................5 Trends and Competitive Environment ................................................................................................................7 Manufacturers Review.............................................................................................................................................8 Market Statistics .....................................................................................................................................................15 Figure 1 - Gas Turbine Electrical Power Generation Power Class Unit Comparison 2011 - 2020 (Bar Graph).........................................................16 Figure 2 - Gas Turbine Electrical Power Generation Power Class Unit Comparison 2011 - 2020 (Pie Chart) ..........................................................16 Figure 3 - Gas Turbine Electrical Power Generation Power Class Value Comparison 2011 - 2020 (Bar Graph) ......................................................17 Figure 4 - Gas Turbine Electrical Power Generation Power Class Value Comparison 2011 - 2020 (Pie Chart) ........................................................17 Table 1 - The Market for Gas Turbine Electrical Power Generation Unit Production by Headquarters/Company/Program 2011 - 2020 ................................................20 Table 2 - The Market for Gas Turbine Electrical Power Generation Value Statistics by Headquarters/Company/Program 2011 - 2020 .................................................27 Figure 5 - Gas Turbine Electrical Power Generation Unit Production 2011 - 2020 (Bar Graph) ...............................................................................34 Figure 6 - Gas Turbine Electrical Power Generation Value of Production 2011 - 2020 (Bar Graph).........................................................................34 Table 3 - The Market for Gas Turbine Electrical Power Generation Unit Production % Market Share by Headquarters/Company 2011 - 2020 ....................................35 Table 4 - The Market for Gas Turbine Electrical Power Generation Value Statistics % Market Share by Headquarters/Company 2011 - 2020 .....................................37 Figure 7 - Gas Turbine Electrical Power Generation Unit Production % Market Share 2011 - 2020 (Pie Chart) ......................................................39 Figure 8 - Gas Turbine Electrical Power Generation Value Statistics % Market Share 2011 - 2020 (Pie Chart) .......................................................39 Conclusion ...............................................................................................................................................................40 * * *

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Product Code F646

The Market for Gas Turbine Electrical Power Generation

PROGRAMS
The following reports are included in this section: (Note: a single report may cover several programs.) Heavy Gas Turbines (11,185 kW and Larger) Alstom GT 8/11/13 Alstom GT24/GT26 GE LM1600 GE LM2500 GE LM6000 GE LMS100 GE Model 5000 GE Model 6000 GE Model 7000 GE Model 9000 General Electric GE-10 Hitachi H-25 Kawasaki L20A Mitsubishi MF-111 Pratt & Whitney Power Systems FT8 Rolls-Royce Industrial RB211 Rolls-Royce Industrial Spey Rolls-Royce Industrial Trent Siemens SGT-400 Siemens SGT-500 Siemens SGT-600/700 Siemens SGT-800 Siemens SGT5-2000/3000/4000 Siemens Westinghouse SGT6-3000/5000/6000 Solar Titan Heavy Industrial & Marine (I&M) Gas Turbines: Design and Development Light Gas Turbines (Up to 11,185 kW) Daihatsu DT Series Dresser-Rand KG2 General Electric GE-5 Kawasaki M1A/M1T Series Kawasaki M7A Kawasaki S1/S2 Series MAN TURBO THM 1200/1300 Mitsui SB5 Optimal Radial Turbine OP16 Pratt & Whitney Power Systems ST6 Pratt & Whitney Power Systems ST18/ST40 Rolls-Royce 501-K Siemens SGT-100 Siemens SGT-200

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Product Code F646

The Market for Gas Turbine Electrical Power Generation

Siemens SGT-300 Solar Centaur/Taurus Solar Mars Solar Saturn Turbomeca Makila TI Vericor ASE8 Vericor TF/ASE 40/50 Light Industrial & Marine (I&M) Gas Turbines: Design and Development

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September 2011

Product Code F646

The Market for Gas Turbine Electrical Power Generation

Introduction
A review of the factors that drive the effectiveness of gas turbines as industrial workhorses will help explain why they remain the logical choice for a majority of new power plant projects, and will continue to do so for many years to come. One of the benefits of gas turbine machines is their modularity and extreme flexibility. Schools, civic centers, and shopping malls are good applications for 200-kilowatt units; entire cities can be powered by 200-megawatt units. Heat recovery units add the ability to cooperate with industry and provide steam for power or processes, or even supply a municipality with district heating/cooling. This also highlights the fact that in combined cycle and CHP applications, efficiencies up to near 60 percent are realized. Simple cycle machines with ICR (intercooled recuperated) systems can see up to 35 percent efficiency. Gas turbines, increasingly in combined cycle applications with heat recovery steam generators (HRSGs) converting waste heat into steam, and steam turbine generators (STGs) using that steam for increased generation efficiency, will continue to be the workhorses in the power generation industry. While gas turbines accounted for 15 percent of the power generation industry in 1998, according to the U.S. DOE, gas turbines are expected to account for 40 percent of U.S. generation by 2020. In evaluating the market for gas turbine electrical power generation over the next decade, many factors lead to the conclusion that annual growth will most likely exceed 2.5-3.0 percent worldwide in order to keep up with demand. Many lobbies and special interests proclaim dubious facts, incomplete pictures, and questionable statistics in an attempt to shape public policy. It is time to develop a comprehensive energy policy that strikes a balance, moving toward renewable and sustainable goals without hobbling the horsepower of economic and technological development. No solitary source will meet all of the world's power requirements, but gas turbines are increasingly being adapted to many schemes to improve the efficiency and reliability of power projects. Renewable fuels show promise, as well as synthetic fuels from coal and biomass; careful consideration of the energy demand for energy investment is required. It makes no sense to process materials through so many steps that the cost to make them is greater than any value derived from them. With the energy demand projected in the next decade, there will be room for unprecedented development in all sectors and regions. When the need becomes critical, new electrical power generation capacity can come from several sources: fossil-fuel-burning machines such as gas turbines (including microturbine machines of under 250 kW) and the new wave of gas engines and diesels; hydroelectric, nuclear, solar, and wind power; waste-to-energy plants (which burn paper/wood, scrap, food waste, and bagasse); and exotic alternatives such as geothermal energy, ocean currents, and fuel cells. One source of electrical power, which many dismiss for initially appearing to be fiscally unproductive, is conservation. Though it may slow the demand for new machine installations, there is a positive side to concerted conservation efforts in established markets. First, showing concern for overall efficiency, and not simply immediate profit, helps build credibility with the customer. While many original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) are entering into long-term operations and maintenance contracts, they must be realizing that steady, baseloaded machines and unencumbered transmission and distribution lines are favorable in terms of maintenance costs and overall financial performance. Fuel cells are still considered to be in the demonstration stage despite their immense appeal stemming from their "relocation" of harmful emissions, but we believe they will be abundant from about 2014. Wind power, while commercially available, is not available everywhere; its overall efficiency is about 50 percent, and it is expensive in the near term on a dollar-per-kilowatt-hour basis. Nuclear power and hydroelectric plants are very expensive and require a long period of hearings, followed by attempts to obtain financing and approvals, and finally, construction. Solar power is very appealing, but shares the drawbacks of wind power – it is not available everywhere, electrical power storage technology is immature and cannot handle the capacity, and it, too, is expensive on a dollar-per-kilowatt-hour basis. The viable alternatives are few. Above the level of microturbines, whose efficiencies range from 20-28 percent, are what we consider to be true gas turbine machines that range in power output from 200-250 kW at the low end to the super-high-power machines of 350+ MW. Today, gas turbine machines have simple-cycle efficiencies of at least 35 percent, with some approaching 45 percent, while some are advertised as already having a 60 percent efficiency in combined-cycle mode. What does past performance predict? While gas turbine Continued…

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Industrial & Marine Turbine Forecast - Gas & Steam Turbines

GE LM2500
Outlook
 Healthy order pattern projected for the machine for all applications; higher-rated LM2500+ and LM2500+G4 models are available for refitting Medium/large commercial ships and LNG carriers remain a potential market for LM2500s of all marks and variants Military marine customers may look at higher-rated gas turbine packages, but the LM2500 will still win a majority of orders
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Description. The LM2500 is a twin-spool, axial-flow, aeroderivative industrial gas generator/gas turbine machine in the 25-35-MW class. Sponsor. The LM2500 was privately developed by the prime contractor. The U.S. Department of Defense, through the U.S. Navy, Naval Sea Systems Command, has sponsored work on the LM2500 marine engine variant. Power Class. The approximate power output of the LM2500 machine is as follows (see Technical Data section, Performance subsection, for details):
Application LM2500/LM2500+ Power Generation Mechanical Load Drive Marine Propulsion LM2500+G4 Power Generation Marine Propulsion Power Output 23.29-36.33 MWe 31,164-45,751 shp 31,164-40,500 shp

generation unit, the TM2500, at 21-23 MW, was introduced in 1999. Price Range. Prices of the LM2500 are estimated as follows (2011 U.S. calendar-year dollars): electrical generation, $9.9-$10.5 million; mechanical load drive, $8.3-$8.6 million; marine power, $7.8-$8.4 million. LM2500+G4 for electrical generation estimated at $11.75-$12.75 million. For electrical generation (simple cycle), the genset price covers a single-fuel skid-mounted gas turbine, electric generator, air intake with basic filter and silencer, exhaust stack, basic starter and controls, and conventional combustion system. For mechanical drive, the price covers a gas-fired gas turbine (without driven equipment) with gearbox, skid, enclosure, inlet and exhaust ducts and exhaust silencer; basic turbine controls; fire protection; starting systems; and conventional combustion system. The combined-cycle price for a single LM2500-based package is estimated at $22.5-$26.5 million. This price range covers a basic gas-fired combined-cycle plant having a gas turbine (usually a DLN-equipped machine), unfired multi-pressure heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) without bypass stack, multi-pressure condensing steam turbine, electric generator, step-up transformer, water-cooled heat rejection equipment, standard controls, starting system, and plant auxiliaries. Competition. In the electrical generation and mechanical load drive arenas, the gas turbines

35.32 MWe 47,370 shp

Status. In production for all applications. Total Produced. As of 2011, over 1,789 LM2500 gas turbine machines, gas generators, and marine engines were built and installed by GE and its affiliates, over 800 of these being of the current production model. Application. Utility and industrial electric power generation, including combined-cycle and cogeneration installations, various mechanical load drives, and marine propulsion. A two-trailer, fully mobile electrical

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Industrial & Marine Turbine Forecast - Gas & Steam Turbines

GE LM2500 competing against the LM2500 include the Siemens SGT-600/700 (formerly GT10), UTC Pratt & Whitney Power Systems FT8, Rolls-Royce RB211-6556/Coberra 6562, Hitachi H-25, and Zorya-Mashproekt UGT-15000. In marine propulsion/marine power applications, the LM2500 series faces competition mainly from the Rolls-Royce/Northrop Grumman/DCN WR-21 and secondarily from the MAN TURBO FT8/FT8+, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI) MFT-8, and Zorya-Mashproekt UGT-25000.

Contractors
Prime
GE Energy Avio SpA MTU Aero Engines GmbH http://www.gepower.com, 4200 Wildwood Pkwy, Atlanta, GA 30339 United States, Tel: + 1 (770) 859-6000, Fax: + 1 (678) 844-6690, Prime http://www.aviogroup.com, Via I Maggio, 99, Rivalta di Torino, 10040 Torino, Italy, Tel: + 39 011 00 82111, Fax: + 39 011 00 82000, Licensee http://www.mtu.de, Dachauer Strasse 665, Munich, 80995 Germany, Tel: + 49 89 1489 0, Fax: + 49 89 1489 5500, Email: info@muc.mtu.de, Licensee

Subcontractor
Alcoa Fastening Systems, Aerospace Products, Fullerton Operations (Plant 1) Altair Filters International Ltd http://www.alcoa.com, 800 S State College Blvd, Fullerton, CA 92831 United States (Nuts) http://www.altairfilter.com, Omega Park, Alton, GU34 2QE Hants, United Kingdom, Tel: + 44 1420 541188, Fax: + 44 1420 541298, Email: info@altairfilter.com (Air Filtration System) http://www.arkwin.com, 686 Main St, Westbury, NY 11590-5018 United States, Tel: + 1 (516) 333-2640, Fax: + 1 (516) 334-6786, Email: rhultmark@arkwin.com (Variable Stator Vane Actuator; Variable Bypass Valve Actuator) http://www.arrowgear.com, 2301 Curtiss St, Downers Grove, IL 60515-4055 United States, Tel: + 1 (630) 969-7640, Fax: + 1 (630) 969-0253 (Bevel Gear) http://www.chromalloy-cla.com, 2100 W 139th St, Gardena, CA 90249 United States, Tel: + 1 (310) 532-6100, Fax: + 1 (310) 329-2228 (Coating) http://www.cintigear.com, 5657 Wooster Pike, Cincinnati, OH 45227-4120 United States, Tel: + 1 (513) 271-7700, Fax: + 1 (513) 271-0049 (High Power Density Reduction Gearing) http://www.dollinger-usa.com, 2499 S W 60th St, Ocala, FL 34474 United States, Tel: + 1 (352) 861-7873, Fax: + 1 (352) 873-5783 (Oil Mist Eliminator) http://www.hamiltonsundstrand.com, 4747 Harrison Ave, PO Box 7002, Rockford, IL 61125-7002 United States, Tel: + 1 (815) 226-6000 (Fuel Pump) http://www/haynesintl.com, 1020 W Park Ave, PO Box 9013, Kokomo, IN 46904-9013 United States, Tel: + 1 (765) 456-6000, Fax: + 1 (765) 456-6905 (High Temperature Superalloy Mill Product) http://www.alcoa.com, 145 Price Rd, Winsted Industrial Park, Winsted, CT 06098 United States, Tel: + 1 (860) 379-3314, Fax: + 1 (860) 379-4239 (Investment Cast Blade & Vane) http://www.iacl.co.uk, IAC House, Moorside Rd, Winchester, SO23 7US Hants, United Kingdom, Tel: + 44 1962 873000, Fax: + 44 1962 873132 (Noise Control & Shock-Mounting System) http://www.endevco.com, 30700 Rancho Viejo Rd, San Juan Capistrano, CA 92675 United States, Tel: + 1 (888) 363-3826 (Accelerometer; Transducer) http://www.parker.com/ag, 8940 Tyler Blvd, Mentor, OH 44060 United States, Tel: + 1 (440) 266-2300, Email: gtfsmarketing@parker.com (Fluid Management System)

Arkwin Industries Inc

Arrow Gear Co Chromalloy Los Angeles Cincinnati Gear Co Dollinger Corp Hamilton Sundstrand Haynes International Inc

Howmet Castings, Corporate Machining Industrial Acoustics Co Ltd

Meggitt Sensing Systems Parker Aerospace Gas Turbine Fuel Systems Division

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Industrial & Marine Turbine Forecast - Gas & Steam Turbines

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GE LM2500
Thales Australia http://www.thalesgroup.com/australia, Locked Bag 3000, Potts Point, 2011 New South Wales, Australia, Tel: + 61 2 9562 3333, Email: communications@thalesgroup.com (Acoustic Enclosure; Base Structure; Exhaust Duct) 2600 E Imperial Hwy, Lynwood, CA 90262-4018 United States (Marine Propulsion Drive)

Westech Gear Corp

Comprehensive information on Contractors can be found in Forecast International's "International Contractors" series. For a detailed description, go to www.forecastinternational.com (see Products & Samples/Governments & Industries) or call + 1 (203) 426-0800. Contractors are invited to submit updated information to Editor, International Contractors, Forecast International, 22 Commerce Road, Newtown, CT 06470, USA; rich.pettibone@forecast1.com

Technical Data
Note: While the manufacturer of the LM2500 gas turbine is GE Infrastructure's Aircraft Engines segment in Cincinnati/Evendale, Ohio, the gas turbine is packaged by GE in Houston, Texas, in order for GE Energy to market the final product. Design Features. The GE Energy LM2500 gas generators and gas turbine machines have the following design features: Inlet Section. Section consists of a bellmouth and bulletnose. The bellmouth contains a spray manifold for injecting liquid cleaning solutions into the compressor to remove fouling. Compressor. Single-rotor, variable stator 16-stage axial flow with overall pressure ratio of 18-24:1. Rotor and stators are fabricated from titanium- and nickelbased alloys, the rotor being built up of three discs and three drums. Variable stators (Stages 1-6) are positioned by fuel pressure as a function of compressorcorrected speed and pressure ratio. Some of the compressed air is extracted for engine cooling; bleed air is available from the compressor discharge. Materials are as follows: Stages 1-14 blades and Stages 1-2 vanes are Ti-6Al-4V; Stages 15-16 blades and Stages 3-16 vanes are A286. Stages 11-13 spool of IN718. Compressor front frame of 17-4 PH; rear frame of IN718. For the LM2500+, a zero stage (Stage 0) has been added to the compressor to increase compressor airflow by approximately 20 percent; it features wide-chord aeroengine-derived technology. Redesign of CF6-80C2/LM6000 Stage 1 blades to wide-chord configuration will eliminate mid-span dampers. A CF6-80C2/LM6000 rotor airfoil design is being added to Stages 2-3. Other changes include a new inlet guide vane assembly. Combustor. The combustor is annular and consists of four major components riveted together (cowl assembly, dome, inner skirt and outer skirt). It is fitted with 30 fuel nozzles in individual swirl chambers, which may be removed externally. Walls are film-cooled by air introduced through small holes. Liners are Hastelloy X and Haynes 188 material; transition duct is IN718, Rene 41, and Hastelloy X. The ignition system consists of two ignition units which convert the 15-volt, 60-Hz power to high voltage, feeding two high-tension leads and two igniters; it is used only during starting and is turned off once the engine reaches idle speed. High-Pressure Turbine. Two axial-flow stages drive the compressor spool. Both stages of the HP turbine blades are cooled by compressor discharge air, which flows through the dovetail and through blade shanks into the blades. Stage 1 blades are cooled by internal convection and impingement and external film cooling. Stage 2 blades are cooled by convection, with all of the cooling air discharged at the blade tips. Both stages of the HP turbine nozzle assemblies are convection and impingement air-cooled, and are coated to improve erosion, corrosion and oxidation resistance. The Stage 1 nozzle is also film-cooled. Materials are as follows: Stages 1-2 blades and Stage 2 vanes are investment cast of Rene 80; Stage 1 vanes are X-40. Casing is a combination of IN718, Rene 41, Hastelloy X and Haynes 188. A major component of the highpressure turbine is the turbine midframe. It supports the aft end of the high-pressure turbine rotor and the forward end of the power turbine rotor. This frame provides a smooth diffuser for the flow of HPT discharge air into the power turbine. For the LM2500+, HPT rotor and stator components are being redesigned to reduce maintenance costs, and will include new materials for improved oxidation resistance. Stage 1-2 contours are being optimized for higher flows. Power Turbine. The power turbine, offered by GE and several distributors, consists of six discs and integral spacers. The blades of all six stages contain interlocking tip shrouds for low vibration levels and are retained in the discs by dovetails. Replaceable rotating seals, secured between the disc spacers, mate with stationary seals to prevent excessive gas leakage between stages.

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Industrial & Marine Turbine Forecast - Gas & Steam Turbines

GE LM2500
The power turbine stator consists of two casing halves, Stages 2 through 6 turbine nozzles, and six stages of blade shrouds. The Stage 1 nozzle is part of the turbine midframe assembly. Stages 2-6 nozzles have segments of six vanes each. Materials are as follows: Stages 1-3 vanes are investment cast Rene 77; Stages 4-6 are Rene 41. Casing is IN718, blades are Rene 77, and discs are IN718. The turbine rear frame forms the power turbine exhaust flow path and supports the aft end of the GE power turbine and forward end of the flexible coupling. It also contains a bearing housing for the No. 7 ball and No. 7 roller bearings. For the LM2500+, the power turbine was redesigned for the higher power output. Stages 1 and 6 blades are being optimized for aerodynamic efficiency. The rotor is being strengthened for the higher torque and potentially higher energy of the higher rated machine. Accessory Drive Section. Consists of an inlet gearbox in the hub of the front frame, a radial drive shaft inside the six o'clock strut of the front frame, and a transfer gearbox bolted underneath the front frame. The starter, fuel pump and filter, main fuel control, lube and scavenge pumps, and air/oil separator are mounted on the transfer gearbox. Fuel/Control Systems. These consist of a combination of a centrifugal and positive displacement fuel pump, a high-pressure fuel filter, a fuel control, two fuel shut-off and drain valves, a fuel pressurizing valve, a fuel manifold, and 30 duplex fuel nozzles. The fuel control system is a hydromechanical type that uses fuel as the servo fluid. The control is the bypass type in which the excess fuel flow is bypassed back to the high-pressure pump. The bypass valve maintains a constant pressure differential across the fuel metering valve so that flow is directly proportional to the main valve opening. The control governs generator speed, compressor discharge pressure, and compressor inlet temperature, and schedules both the steady-state and transient fuel flow to maintain the set speed and prevent over-temperature or compressor stall during acceleration or deceleration. It does not control power turbine speed. Power turbine speed, for any setting of gas generator speed, will vary as a function of the load. The fuel control also schedules the movement of the compressor variable stator vanes as a function of gas generator speed and compressor inlet air temperature to maintain compressor efficiency and stall margin at all operating speeds.

Dimensions. The LM2500/LM2500+ marine gas turbines have the following dimensions and weights:
APPLICATION = MARINE PROPULSION Metric Units U.S. Units Length (LM2500) 6.52 m 21.4 ft Length (LM2500+; +G4) 6.7 m 22 ft Height 2.04 m 6.7 ft Weight (LM2500) 4,672 kg 10,300 lb Weight (LM2500+; +G4) 5,237 kg 11,545 lb

The following are the dimensions and weight of the generator of the LM2500/LM2500+ gas turbines for 60-Hz and 50-Hz non-recuperated-mode generation duty:
APPLICATION = ELECTRICAL GENERATION Metric Units U.S. Units 17.37 m 57.0 ft 2.74 m 9.0 ft 3.04 m 10.0 ft 113,340-117,936 kg 250,000-260,000 lb

Length Weight Height Weight

The following are the dimensions and weight of the baseplate of the GE LM2500/LM2500+ gas turbine-based mechanical drive package:
APPLICATION = MECHANICAL DRIVE Metric Units U.S. Units 10.67 m 35 ft 2.4 m 8 ft 3.04 m 10 ft 53,070 kg 117,000 lb

Length Weight Height Weight

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Page 5

GE LM2500
Performance. The simple-cycle LM2500 gas turbine for electrical generation has the following performance parameters (59°F/15°C, 60% RH, no inlet/exhaust losses, natural gas fuel for industrial machine, LHV = 18,400 Btu/lb; for LM2500 STIG™, 4"/10" H 2 O inlet/exhaust losses). Tables below do not include the LM2500+G4:
LM2500PH 27.76 MW 8,391 Btu/kWh 40.7% 19.4:1 75.7 kg/sec 494°C APPLICATION = ELECTRICAL GENERATION (60 Hz) LM2500PE LM2500RD LM2500RC 23.29 MW 33.16 MW 36.33 MW 9,315 Btu/kWh 8,774 Btu/kWh 9,184 Btu/kWh 36.6% 38.9% 37.2% 19.1:1 23.0:1 24.4:1 69 kg/sec 91 kg/sec 97 kg/sec 533°C 525°C 507°C APPLICATION = ELECTRICAL GENERATION (50 Hz) LM2500PH LM2500RD LM2500RC 26.46 MW 32.69 MW 35.84 MW 8,673 Btu/kWh 8,901 Btu/kWh 9,313 Btu/kWh 39.3% 38.3% 36.6% 19.4:1 23.0:1 24.4:1 76 kg/sec 91 kg/sec 97 kg/sec 497°C 525°C 507°C

Power Output Heat Rate (LHV) Efficiency Pressure Ratio Exhaust Flow EGT

Power Output Heat Rate (LHV) Efficiency Pressure Ratio Exhaust Flow EGT

LM2500PE 22.34 MW 9,630 Btu/kWh 35.4% 18.0:1 70 kg/sec 538°C

The approximate performance parameters of the simple-cycle LM2500 as a mechanical load driver and for marine propulsion/drive are as follows (ISO; no losses; liquid fuel):
MECHANICAL DRIVE LM2500PE LM2500RD LM2500RC 31,164 shp 45,439 shp 45,751 shp 6,780 Btu/hp-hr 6,404 Btu/hp-hr 6,389 Btu/hp-hr 37.5% 39.7% 39.8% 19.5.1 23.0:1 23.0:1 n/a n/a n/a 68.9 kg/sec 91.2 kg/sec 91.6 kg/sec 524°C 497°C 524°C

Power Output Heat Rate Efficiency Pressure Ratio SFC (lb/shp-hr) Exhaust Flow EGT n/a = not applicable

The approximate performance parameters of the simple-cycle LM2500 for marine propulsion/drive are as follows (power and SFC at ISO continuous):
MARINE PROPULSION LM2500+ LM2500+G4 LM2500 33,600 shp 40,500 shp 47,370 shp 25,060 kW 30,200 kW 35,320 kW 0.373 lb/shp-hr 0.354 lb/shp-hr 0.352 lb/shp-hr 6,860 Btu/shp-hr 6,522 Btu/shp-hr 6,469 Btu/shp-hr 19.3.1 22.2:1 24.0:1 155 lb/sec 189 lb/sec 204.7 kg/sec 1,051°F 965°F 1,020°F

Power Output Power Output SFC Heat Rate Pressure Ratio Exhaust Flow EGT

Variants/Upgrades
Since the inception of the program, an inordinately large number of designations have been applied to the GE LM2500 industrial and marine gas turbine machines. It should be noted here that in the Web sites of GE Energy and GE Infrastructure-Marine, the designation LM2500+ is used conflictingly. While it is often used for all applications, the designation is now

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Industrial & Marine Turbine Forecast - Gas & Steam Turbines

GE LM2500 most often applied to the marine propulsion/power arena. In the electrical generation arena, the currently offered models are the LM2500PH, LM2500PE, LM2500RD, and LM2500RC. In the mechanical load drive arena, the currently offered models are the LM2500PE, LM2500RC, and LM2500RC. In the marine power arena, the most often referred to models are the LM2500 (the normal, lower-rated model) and the LM2500+ (LM2500 Plus). LM2500 STIG™. The LM2500 STIG is a steam injection version of the basic LM2500 gas turbine. LM2500+G4. The LM2500+G4 is the latest update to the LM2500 family (see Program Review below).

Program Review
Background. The GE Energy LM2500 is an axialflow, gas generator/gas turbine engine designed to power a wide variety of marine and industrial applications. Its development stems from a combination of the GE TF39 turbofan engine, which powers the Air Force C-5A/B, and the CF6-6, which powers a number of commercial aircraft. GE recently began using advanced, cooled turbine blades in the high-pressure turbine section. This development originated with the CF6-50 commercial aviation program. The new single-shanked blade with a cast-in cooling system permitted an increase from 27,500 shp to 29,500 shp with improved fuel specifics. This power output was accomplished by allowing turbine inlet temperatures to increase, but material temperatures have actually been reduced, thus increasing the life of the engine core. The single-shank turbine blade has been operating on the U.S. Navy's MSTS Callaghan for thousands of hours on its regular run between Bayonne, New Jersey, and Bremerhaven, Germany. The largest and most active market for the LM2500 continues to be marine propulsion. While the CG-47 cruiser production program has been completed, the DDG-51 destroyer program will continue through the decade at a rate of three to five ships per year. Several navies continue to order LM2500s. Most notably, Thailand has ordered two sets for its planned new helicopter carrier, and Korea has orders for its KDX destroyer program. Ishikawajima-Harima continues to supply these engines to the Japanese Navy for the new destroyers it is funding (Murasame class). However, it is the international fast-ferry market that holds the most promise for sales as the popularity of this type grows. Italy's Aquastrada, the first gas turbine-powered fast ferry, began operations in the summer of 1993 powered by MTU-built LM2500s (see MTU below). Kværner Energy ordered two LM2500s and two LM1600s in August 1993 from GE Marine & Industrial for Stena AB's Highspeed Sea Service ferry. This is a truly large craft, accommodating 1,500 passengers and 375 cars at speeds of up to 40 knots in service across the Irish Sea between Holyhead, Wales, and Dublin Bay, Ireland. The fast ferry offers the convenience of avoiding increasingly congested airports, and eliminates the need for a rental car. In one of the largest contracts won by GE in recent years, the LM2500 was selected for the U.S. Navy's Sealift Program ships. In February 1994, GE received a $60 million order to power six U.S. Navy sealift vessels with the 33,600-shp LM2500. At the same time, GE has developed a recuperation scheme for the LM2500. The use of a recuperator enhances the power efficiency of the engine at the lower power levels (targeted below 10,000 bhp) that naval vessels operate in 90 percent of the time. A recuperated engine also eliminates the cost and time of developing a new aero-derived engine aimed at comparable fuel savings. Finally, this engine answers the challenge of the Westinghouse/Rolls-Royce RB211 family-derived ICR marine gas turbine engine. Low-Btu Development. GE has modified LM2500 and LM5000 gas turbines to accommodate Steam Injection (STIG) for performance enhancement. (As used in this report, STIG is a registered trademark of GE.) In the STIG system, steam generated from an exhaust heat recovery boiler is directed back into the engine by being injected into the fuel nozzles and compressor discharge ports. Mass flow and power are thus increased, and other benefits are derived: the temperature of the hot section cooling medium is lowered, allowing the turbine to operate at higher combustion firing temperatures; the steam reduces NOx formations, with emissions as low as 25 ppm attainable without catalysts; and, when used on a cogeneration site with varying steam demand, steam production is always put to good use. The benefits of the LM2500 STIG gas turbine include direct-drive for power generation, a variable steam injection rate, at least 25 percent more power compared to the normal LM2500, ease of installation for cogeneration applications, and dual-fuel capability

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GE LM2500
(distillate or natural gas). In addition, excess heat is absorbed when electric rates are high and maximum steam is injected when electric prices are low. LM2500+. In June 1994, GE announced the LM2500+ (LM2500 Plus) gas turbine machine, based on the LM2500. The LM2500+ currently has a rating of 40,200 shp for mechanical drive duty and 33.2-33.4 MWe for 60-Hz power generation. Among the changes made to the LM2500 to create the LM2500+ are the addition of a Stage 0 to the compressor, redesign of the Stage 1 blades in the compressor, redesign of the HPT rotor and stators, and redesign of the power turbine. Other benefits of the new gas turbine include dual-fuel capability (distillate and gas), rapid startup and loading, variable speed operation, and excellent part-load efficiency. The two-shaft machine is aimed at the industrial markets for mechanical drive and direct-drive power generation applications in the 50-Hz and 60-Hz markets – with potential for marine propulsion use, including fast-ferry service. Emission control is provided by water and steam injection using a standard combustor of the LM2500 Dry Low Emissions (DLE) combustion system. Operating on natural gas at the design point rating, the LM2500+'s expected hot section repair and overhaul intervals are 25,000 and 50,000 hours, respectively. LM2500 Licensees/Packagers/Affiliates. The following firms have acted as licensees, OEMs, and/or packagers of the LM2500/LM2500+: Dresser-Rand. Dresser-Rand had been a long-time packager of the LM2500: it has also packaged several other GE models. Dresser-Rand has a long-standing OEM agreement with GE Aircraft engines and has sold more than 200 units. Stewart & Stevenson. In June 1994, GE announced that Stewart & Stevenson Services (Houston, Texas) had placed a 25-unit launch order for the machine. Delivery of the new gas turbines began in 1996, to S&S's Houston facility. S&S packaged and tested each machine, and provided full-load package testing before shipment to customers. In 1997, Stewart & Stevenson sold its Gas Turbine Division to GE. Stewart & Stevenson was involved in the installation of 141 LM2500s. GE Energy GE Oil & Gas (Nuovo Pignone Entity). In December 1994, GE announced that under a GE contract, a new high-speed power turbine (HSPT) was being designed and developed by Nuovo Pignone for the LM2500+ gas turbine. The LM2500+ gas turbines equipped with the HSPT are designed for applications requiring higher output shaft speeds than offered by currently available LM2500s. (The LM2500 units have an uprated derivative of the six-stage, aeroderivative power turbine rated at 3,600 rpm.) The HSPT is aimed at the mechanical drive market for powering pipeline centrifugal compressors of 30 MW. In this application, the HSPT would turn at 6,100 rpm. The HSPT can also be used for 50/60-Hz generation applications. For applications in the 3,000-3,600-rpmoutput shaft-speed range, the LM2500+ uses the uprated six-stage power turbine. Continuous operation is possible over the speed range 3,050-6,400 rpm, with a trip speed setting of 6,710 rpm. As with the LM2500+ equipped with the six-stage power turbine, the HSPT version is available with GE's DLE and standard combustion systems. The HSPT design uses hydrodynamic bearings to support the cantilevered rotor. Separate lubricating oil systems will be required to handle synthetic oil for the generator, and mineral oil for the power turbine. Nuovo Pignone is now 100 percent owned by GE. The entities A-C Compressor, Conmec, Gemini, GE Packaged Power-Odessa, Rotoflow, Thermodyn, PII Pipeline Solutions, and Nuovo Pignone are now collectively referred to as GE Oil & Gas. Nuovo Pignone and GE Oil & Gas have installed at least 94 LM2500s. China National Machinery & Equipment Import & Export Corp (CMEC). GE lists the China National Machinery & Equipment Import & Export Corp, located in Beijing, China, as a business associate and licensee of the LM2500. The nation could eventually manufacture a large percentage of the LM2500s, not only for marine use but for industrial use as well. There have been no recent reports of LM2500 activity by CMEC. Cooper Energy Services. Cooper Energy Services has mated the LM2500 gas turbine to its own compressor unit as the RT-200 packaged system, one of which was delivered in 1977 to the Great Lakes Gas Transmission Company for the Gas Transmission Pipeline's Shevlin (Minnesota) site. Cooper Energy Services has been melded into Rolls-Royce plc. Crawford Enterprises. This Texas-based firm has offered the LM2500 gas turbine in its line of packaged machinery, designating the unit TURBOMOD. It delivered six machines in 1980 to Petroleos Mexicanos for use on Pemex offshore platforms.

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Industrial & Marine Turbine Forecast - Gas & Steam Turbines

GE LM2500
There have been no recent reports of LM2500 activity by Crawford Enterprises. FiatAvio. FiatAvio (now Avio SpA) participated in the early stages of development of the LM2500 for marine applications, and was instrumental in getting the gas turbine aboard several Italian ships, including the Lupo, Maestrale, and Garibaldi classes of naval vessels. Other countries operating Lupo class frigates are Venezuela, Peru, and Iraq. The Garibaldi is one of two aircraft carriers propelled by the LM2500. Fiat has delivered three LM2500 systems, the first in 1989 to the city of Genoa, Italy, for the Ansaldo facility. Fiat Avio/Avio has delivered at least 99 LM2500s. Hindustan Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd (HAL). Aeronautics Ltd signed an agreement with GE in November 1986 culminating a seven-year competition with Rolls-Royce. With LM2500s in use on India's ONGC Bombay High South Platform, HAL has become the service and supply source for the gas turbine. HAL also supplies the gas turbine machine for marine propulsion duty. There have been no recent reports of LM2500 activity by HAL. IHI packages Ishikawajima-Harima (IHI). GE's LM1600, LM2500, LM5000, and LM6000 aeroderivative gas generators with IHI power turbines. Its first LM2500-based system was delivered in 1982 to the Papua New Guinea Electric Company for use in the Moitaka Power Station. Two LM2500-based units were delivered in 1993 to the Kansai Electric Power Company for electric duty at the Kansai Airport in Japan. IHI has packaged and delivered at least 40 LM2500s. Kværner Eureka. The Oslo-based firm, formerly known as Kværner Brug A/S, is the first of GE's Manufacturing Associates to handle the LM2500, with all its work being directed to the North Sea, specifically for maintenance and logistics support of Statfjord platforms. Kværner Energy ordered two LM2500s and two LM1600s from GE Marine & Industrial for Stena AB's high-speed sea service ferry in the British Isles. The LM2500s are rated at approximately 27,100 shp (20,208 kW) each, while the LM1600s are rated at approximately 17,500 shp (13,050 kW) each, for a maximum total output of 89,200 shp (66,516 kW). The powertrain arrangement is COGAG (combined gas turbine and gas turbine). Kværner has delivered at least 65 LM2500 machines, including 32 gas turbines for generation and 33 units for mechanical drive duty aboard offshore platforms. Kværner Energy is now a part of GE Energy. MTU Motoren-und Turbinen-Union MTU. Friedrichshafen GmbH signed an OEM (original equipment manufacturer) agreement in September 1992 with GE for the stationary application of LM1600 and LM2500 gas turbines. MTU Friedrichshafen's development and production share includes the module with all peripheral systems, the electronic systems for monitoring and control, and the turbine monitoring system. Power outputs are in the range of 22 to 28 MW for the LM2500 modules. MTU Maintenance in Hanover, Germany, a subsidiary of MTU Munich, maintains the LM2500 modules. MTU began acquiring orders at the close of 1992. MTU provided the CODAG (combined diesel and gas turbine) propulsion package for Italy's Aquastrada monohull passenger ferry, the first gas turbine-powered fast ferry to enter commercial service (July 1993). The ferry is powered by one 28,000-shp (20,880-kW) LM2500 and two MTU diesels with a total output of 9,600 shp (7,158 kW). The 102-meter vessel, which began operations between Italy and Sardinia, attained a maximum speed of 43 knots at 90 percent power during sea trials. It can carry 150 automobiles. MTU has delivered at least 12 LM2500s. Thomassen. Thomassen has offered the aeroderivative LM2500 gas turbine in its line of power engineering services and products. It has installed about 10 machines for generating duty, all for use in the Netherlands, including two machines for N. V. Ilsselmij for the Utility/District Heating facility in Enschede and one for PNEM for its Warmtekracht Station, District Heating, in Helmond. Thomassen International (now Thomassen Turbine Services BV, a part of Calpine Corp) is no longer involved with the LM2500, Thomassen installed nine LM2500s. Other Associates. Other packagers and firms have delivered LM2500 machines, but are now inactive or have ceased operations. These include the following:  Curtiss Wright: eight machines, including six in 1978 for Statoil's Statfjord Platforms in the North Sea. Penske Power Systems: two gas turbine machines delivered in 1981 to the Saudi Consolidated Electricity Corp for electric power generation at the Qaisumah Power Station.



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Industrial & Marine Turbine Forecast - Gas & Steam Turbines

Page 9

GE LM2500
 Alstom and European Gas Turbines Ltd: EGTL/Alstom discontinued its association with GE in 1999. It had installed 20 LM2500s, including four machines in the U.S. Of the 20 machines, 17 were for electrical generation. Ticonderoga Class Cruisers. The 9,407-9,516-ton CG-47 Ticonderoga class guided missile cruisers use the proven hull and propulsion machinery of the Spruance class vessels; the superstructure was modified to accommodate the AEGIS Weapon System. In addition, AEGIS can assume control of the weapons systems of accompanying ships in order to concentrate fleet defense. A total of 27 vessels of this class had been commissioned by January 1996; the current inventory is 22. As with the Spruance class vessels, the Ticonderoga class ships use four GE LM2500 marine gas turbines on two shafts, generating 86,000+ horsepower in a COGAG mode. Originally Arleigh Burke Class Destroyers. designated DDGX, the 9,238-ton (maximum) class of guided missile destroyers is now called the Arleigh Burke class. A total of 56 vessels have been built, with six to nine more IIAs to be commissioned. All vessels employ four LM2500 engines in a COGAG mode. International Military Naval Applications. Beyond use by the U.S. Navy, LM2500s power the surface vessels of more than 25 other nations, as follows (for ships laid down as of 2008). As used in the listing below, GM = Guided Missile; FAC = Fast Attack Craft. Several countries have both guided missile-firing frigates and non-guided missile-firing frigates in their inventories.
Country Australia Bahrain Brazil Canada China Denmark Egypt France Germany Greece India Indonesia Israel Italy Military Vessel 5 GM Frigates; 8 Frigates 1 GM Frigate 5 Frigates/Corvettes 3 Destroyers; 12 Frigates 2 GM Destroyers 3 Frigates/Corvettes 4 GM Frigates 2 GM Destroyers 11 GM Frigates; 4 Frigates 4 Frigates 3 GM Frigates 4 FAC/GM Patrol Boats 3 GM Corvettes 13 GM Destroyers 8 GM Frigates; 4 Frigates 1 Aircraft Carrier 1 Amphibious Vessel 15 GM Destroyers 4 AEGIS Destroyers 3 Destroyers 6 GM Frigates 24 Corvettes 13 Frigates 1 Maritime Police Ship 2 Frigates 5 Frigates 8 GM Frigates

The LM2500+G4. In September 2005, GE Energy's aeroderivative division launched the fourth significant increase in the rating of the LM2500. Referred to as the LM2500+G4, the model is an uprated version of the LM2500+, designed with greater power capabilities. The improvements come from an infusion of proven technologies derived from GE's flight engines and its LM6000. At the time this model was announced, GE said that the LM2500+G4 would be available in the fourth quarter of 2005. The 47,379-shp/35.32-MW LM2500+G4 is intended to deliver up to 12 percent more power, compared to its predecessor, over a wide range of conditions. The latest upgrade gives customers additional horsepower in the same engine envelope. This model operates in both simple-cycle and combined-cycle modes, with plans for availability in standard and DLE combustion models capable of burning natural gas, fuel oil, or both in a dual-fuel capacity. The LM2500+G4, in combined-cycle mode relative to the LM2500+, is to have an 8.5 percent power and 0.75 percent heat rate advantage. LM2500 U.S. Navy Applications. The LM2500 gas turbine machine has been actively applied in military marine propulsion. Marine applications of the LM2500, solely for the U.S. Navy, include:
Class 8 Watson Class Ro-Ro Sealift Vessels 4 Supply Class Fast Combat Support Ships 22 Ticonderoga Class GM Destroyers 56 Arleigh Burke Class (Flight I, II, IIA) GM Destroyers 30 Oliver H. Perry Class GM Frigates 1 Surface Craft-Experimental (FSF-1) Engines 2 4 4 4 2 2

Oliver Hazard Perry Class Frigates. The second major application of the LM2500 marine gas turbine module is the 3,638-4,100-ton Oliver Hazard Perry class guided missile frigate (FFG-7), with each frigate using two LM2500s driving a single screw in a COGAG mode. The original procurement plan called for up to 60 ships; the current inventory total is 30. Australia has taken delivery of five Oliver Hazard Perry class vessels (Adelaide class in Australia), all built in the U.S. Spain has taken delivery of six 3,696-ton FFG-7 class ships (Santa Maria class in Spain).

Japan Korea

New Zealand Norway Peru

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March 2011

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Industrial & Marine Turbine Forecast - Gas & Steam Turbines

GE LM2500
Country Poland Portugal Saudi Arabia South Africa Spain Military Vessel 2 GM Frigates 5 GM Frigates 4 GM Corvettes 9 FAC/GM Patrol Boats 4 Corvettes 1 Aircraft Carrier 1 Strategic Projection Vessel 10 GM Frigates 4 GM Destroyers; 8 Frigates 1 Helicopter Carrier 2 GM Frigates 12 GM Frigates 6 GM Frigates Country Denmark France Greece Italy Sweden U.S. Commercial Vessel 4 High-Speed Ferries 1 High-Speed Ferry 1 High-Speed Ferry NEL Corsaire 3 Fast Frigates (including Aquastrada) 2 High-Speed Ferries (MDV-3000) 4 Frigates 2 High-Speed Ferries 4 Royal Caribbean Cruise Ships 4 Celebrity Cruises Cruise Ships 4 Princess Cruises Cruise Ships 1 Cunard Line Cruise Ship 4 Holland America Line Cruise Ships

Taiwan Thailand Turkey Venezuela

Commercial Marine Applications. LM2500s have been installed on or ordered for the following commercial vessels:

Funding
U.S. Navy RDT&E Funding. There are no current U.S. Navy R-1 program elements or projects involving the LM2500. Navy funding, however, has been provided for an Intercooled Regenerative Cycle (IRC) gas turbine machine, with all of the effort focused on the Rolls-Royce/Northrop Grumman/DCN WR-21 machine. USN IRC-related work has been carried out under PE#0603573N, Advanced Surface Machinery, Project S1314-IRC-Gas Turbine Engines. No funding for this project has been requested for FY06 and beyond. U.S. Navy Procurement Funding. U.S. Navy funding for the GE Energy LM2500 gas turbine machine is identified in the U.S. Department of the Navy FY09 Budget Estimates under "Other Procurement, Navy." Specifically, it is in BA1, "Ships Support Equipment." Line Item details for accounts below were not available at the time of publication. Descriptive material in the P-1 Item "LM2500 Gas Turbine (81GA) (0110)" follows:
The LM2500 marine gas turbine and its associated engineering control systems provide main propulsion for the Navy's newest surface combatants, including the FFG 7 Oliver Hazard Perry class, DD 963 Spruance class, CG 47 Ticonderoga class, DDG 51 Arleigh Burke class, and AOE 6 Supply class. The LM2500 is composed of two major subassemblies, the gas generator and power turbine sections. It is coupled to the ship driver train by a high-speed coupling shaft. The control system provides for both local and remote engine operations. The budget funds the following: Modification Kit Program (GA009). A metrics program has been established for the LM2500 engine to track service history for individual engine components and compile data regarding failure rates. The data are compiled for various ship classes and engine configurations. The metrics program clearly identifies where engineering efforts should be focused to improve component reliability and also indicates which modification kits should be procured. The modifications kits can either be installed at the depot level during engine overhauls or at the intermediate level aboard ship via IMA support teams. Failure to procure modification kits will prevent improvement to mean time between removal (MTBR) and will significantly increase life-cycle costs, including increasing the requirement for additional spare engine assets, increasing the cost to overhaul engines at the depot and negatively impacting the reliability of engines and fleet readiness. It should be noted that although some gas turbine ships are decommissioning, the total engine population in the fleet remains stable until FY05 and then decreases only by six engines per year. The effects of decommissioning are being offset by an aggressive DDG 51 construction program. Gas Generator in Container (GA010). The attainment of LM2500 spare single shank gas generator inventory level of 26 is considered the program's minimum requirement based upon the current total population of 348 engines, along with the requirement to forward deploy some inventory assets to support the fleet overseas. This inventory level is based upon 25 years of experience with the LM2500 Engine and ensures 90 percent probability for spare asset availability. A total of 18 complete gas generator units have been procured through FY05. In FY02, several one-time components were procured to start an available pool of high failure items. One complete gas generator unit will be procured each year from FY06- FY11 (seven units).

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Industrial & Marine Turbine Forecast - Gas & Steam Turbines

Page 11

GE LM2500
Control System Modifications (GA012). The engine control system consists of sensors, data acquisition units, processors, and operator consoles. Peripheral devices include bell and data loggers, printers, tape readers, mass storage devices, and tape recorders. These end items consist of printer circuit boards, meters, CRTs, switches, and power supplies. Inventory objectives not required. Unit costs vary per modification kit. Obsolescence is increasingly an item that needs to be managed. Special Support Equipment, SSE (GA014). Procurement of Special Support Equipment allows for increased depot repair capability, thereby stabilizing or reducing the cost to overhaul engines at the depot. This tooling is generally associated with depot modifications being made to the engine to increase engine reliability. This increased capability reduces engine overhaul costs. Full Authority Digital Electronic Control (FADEC) (GA015). Funding will procure five DDG 51/CG-47 shipsets each year to replace existing on-engine fuel controls with off engine digital fuel controls, starting in FY06. This addresses an obsolescence, maintainability, and reliability issue. Four shipsets will be procured in FY07 and FY08 (8 shipsets). Five shipsets will be procured in FY09 thru FY11 (15 shipsets). Production Engineering (GA830). The review and approval of any production contract technical documentation, or the separate development of this documentation to include Technical Manuals, Signal Flow Diagrams, PMS, Level III production drawings, provisioning technical documentation (PTD), program support data (PSD), allowance parts lists (APLs) and engineering in support of final design reviews.

The Program Element totals and individual Elements of Cost for the LM2500 as contained in the Department of Navy FY09 budget estimates are as follows: U.S. FUNDING
FY07 AMT Expended 7.4 FY08 AMT Budgeted 8.1 FY09 AMT Budgeted 8.0 FY10 AMT Proposed 9.2 FY11 AMT Proposed 9.5

Other Procurement, Navy: BA1 Ships Support Equipment LM2500 Gas Turbine (all)
All figures are in millions of FY10 U.S. dollars.

Contracts/Orders & Options
Contractor GE Infrastructure-Marine Award (in millions) N/A Date/Description Dec 2006 – Contract to provide OAO Territorial Generating Company No 4 (TGK-4) with two LM2500+ DLE aeroderivative gas turbine generator sets for its Belgorod TEC power station in Russia. This was a follow-on order; two units were shipped in 2006 and are currently in commercial operation. The power station generates both heat and electrical power to reduce the cost of operation for the local power and district-heating grid. Nov 2004 – Two LM2500+ generator sets for Looch Power Station in Belgorod, Russian Federation. IR-Leasing will lease the two LM2500+ generator sets to BelgorodEnergo for a four-year period. Nov 2004 – Three TM2500 mobile gas turbine generators. customer is TERNA SA, Greece. The

GE Infrastructure-Marine

N/A

GE Infrastructure-Marine GE Infrastructure-Marine GE Infrastructure-Marine

N/A N/A N/A

Nov 2004 – Twelve LM2500 gas turbines for Korea's next-generation KDX -3 destroyers. The customer is the Republic of Korea. Nov 2004 – One LM2500 gas turbine for the service's multimission cutter under the Integrated Deepwater System (IDS) program. The customer is the U.S. Coast Guard.

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Industrial & Marine Turbine Forecast - Gas & Steam Turbines

GE LM2500
Contractor GE Infrastructure-Marine Award (in millions) N/A Date/Description Nov 2004 – Two LM2500+ gas turbines with six-stage power turbines to repower existing Rolls-Royce Olympus packages at the Leiden Power Station. The customer is E.ON Benelux Generation of the Netherlands.

N/A = Not Available.

Timetable
Month 1Q Dec Jan Jul Year 1967-9 1969 1969 1971 1975 1979 1981 1983 1983 1983 1987 1989 1988 1990 1993 1993 1994 1994 1996 1996 1996 1997 1998 1998 1999 1999 1999 2000 2000 2001 2001 2002 2003 2003 2004 2004 2004 2005 2005 2020 Major Development Design/development of LM2500 U.S. Navy contract awarded for LM2500 test units Marine engine installed in MSTS Callaghan GE awarded DD-963 propulsion contract DD-963 delivered to U.S. Navy First industrial units become operational in Lake Charles, North Sea First Nuovo Pignone-installed machines become operational First units become operational in Saudi Arabia Uprated LM2500 becomes available First Kanis Energie, Thomassen-installed units become operational First STIG plant becomes operational Fiat awarded contract for combined-cycle cogeneration plant in Genoa IPSA Phase II contract awarded Fiat unit in Genoa becomes fully operational IMO, Stewart & Stevenson, Thomassen form turbine-powered compressor package production/sales alliance First turbine-powered fast ferry, Aquastrada, becomes operational GE M&IE announces S&S launch order for LM2500+ GE Nuovo Pignone LM2500+ power turbine announced Second LM2500+ engine test using the power turbine Start of shipment of LM2500+ machines to S&S First LM2500+ for power generation ordered First LM2500+ machines for all applications delivered GE acquires 91 percent of equity shares of Nuovo Pignone First-ever cruise ship contract signed for gas turbines involving up to 12 LM2500+s First marine CODAG installation of LM2500, for Germany's F-124 class frigates Alstom dropped as a packager GE Energy Rentals introduces TM2500 at 21-23 MW Nuovo Pignone becomes an integral part of GE Oil & Gas Radiance of the Seas sea trials begin LM2500s chosen for Queen Mary 2 transatlantic liner LM2500s chosen for Norway's F310 class frigates USN orders LM2500+ machines for eighth LHD Wasp ship GE announces sale of the 100th LM2500+ gas turbine machine LM2500 chosen to power U.S. Navy's X-Craft vessel (along with MTU diesel engines) Volvo Aero signs two contracts with GE on LM2500 work/cooperation LM2500-powered Queen Mary 2 makes maiden voyage GE announces LM2500+G4 Volvo increases its role in LM2500 program LM2500+G4 becomes available Continued production/aftermarket support of LM2500 by GE and affiliates

MidEarly May Jul Jun Dec 1Q Early Jun

May

Late Dec 2Q/3Q Oct Dec Jan Aug

Jan Sep Oct 4Q Thru

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Industrial & Marine Turbine Forecast - Gas & Steam Turbines

Page 13

GE LM2500

Worldwide Distribution/Inventories
As of 2011, over 800 current-model LM2500s for all applications were installed in more than 30 countries and territories worldwide, including the North Sea region. Note: According to Forecast International's Industrial & Marine Gas Turbine Installations database, 1,789 LM2500 machines were installed worldwide by the start of 2011. The following are major customer nations: Canada (62 machines), Germany (44), Italy (89), Korea [ROK] (59), Japan (71), Mexico (34), Norway (137), U.S. (612), and Venezuela (42).

Forecast Rationale
The GE LM2500 has defied the test of time. It's a machine that's been available for a long time, but continues to sell well. From 2002-2003 alone, GE sold about 180 machines, and in 2004, the company sold about 75 machines. It's expected that the machine will continue to be produced for the utility and industrial power generation arena, especially for cogeneration projects. While the STIG™ configuration is a strong selling point for the LM2500, overall sales during the upcoming decade may not reach the high levels of past years. The market for LM2500/LM2500+-sized gas turbines as mechanical load drivers continues to hold its own worldwide. With increasing activity in natural gas and other pipeline construction throughout the world, the GE machine is well-positioned to obtain a share of the total orders as they emerge. The chief supplier of LM2500-powered drivers should continue to be GE Oil & Gas (here referring in particular to the former Nuovo Pignone). It should be noted that GE and GE Oil & Gas can offer variants of the LM2500 in the output range of 31,000-46,000 shp. The 46,000-shp/34.3-MW LM2500+G4 offers more than a 12 percent increase in power compared with its predecessor, over a wide range of conditions. This latest upgrade gives customers additional horsepower in virtually the same engine envelope. The newest model can operate in both simple-cycle and combined-cycle modes, and will quickly be available in both standard and DLE combustion models, capable of burning natural gas, fuel oil, or both in a dual-fuel capacity. The LM2500+G4, in combined-cycle mode relative to the LM2500+, will have more power plus a 0.8 percent heat rate advantage. Without any doubt, the LM2500+/LM2500+G4 has evolved in response to the Rolls-Royce RB211-based WR-21 – not only in the marine arena, but also in the pipeline and process industries market. The WR-21, now under the sponsorship of Rolls-Royce/Northrop Grumman/DCN, has been selected for the U.K.'s Type 45 destroyers and Alternative Landing Ships Logistic (ALSL) – a selection based more on the need of the U.K. to protect U.K.-based jobs than on the merits of one engine versus another. Again, to no one's surprise, the choice of the WR-21 was undoubtedly based on the fact that Rolls-Royce has long been the preferred gas turbine supplier to the U.K. Royal Navy. (GE-Marine has had the same relationship with the U.S. Navy.) Furthermore, the large fast-ferry market is expected to grow worldwide, with strong sales projected in Asia/Pacific Rim nations. Moreover, a potentially strong market for LM2500/LM2500+-sized gas turbines are large luxury cruise ships operated by Princess Cruises, Royal Caribbean International, and Celebrity Cruises, in addition to Cunard Line's Queen Mary 2 transatlantic liner. While the gas turbine does indeed have much to offer the large commercial vessels – smaller footprint, lessened vibration – we do not expect to see a serious effort to refit large, in-place, low-speed diesel engines with the lighter LM2500s of any variant. Virtually all of the marine LM2500/LM2500+/LM2500+G4 gas turbines, we believe, will be ordered for new-build vessels. Any refitting will largely be confined to military vessels. Based on our recent review of the LM2500 – and an assessment of recent known orders – we are projecting that 908 engines/machines will be built during the forecast period, a total that includes production by GE's affiliates. With uprating and upgrading efforts moving ahead at almost lightening speed, the LM2500 – in the guise of the LM2500+ and LM2500+G4 – is on its way to becoming one of the most well-known gas turbine engines of all time.

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Industrial & Marine Turbine Forecast – Gas & Steam Turbines

GE LM2500

Ten-Year Outlook
ESTIMATED CALENDAR YEAR UNIT PRODUCTION
Designation or Program
Thru 2010 2011 High Confidence 2012 2013 2014 Good Confidence 2015 2016 2017 Speculative 2018 2019 2020 Total

GE Energy
LM 2500/+ MW 20.0 to 20,000 Marine Propulsion
194 30 32 34 30 26 28 26 28 26 26 286

LM 2500/+ SHP =>20,000 Mechanical Drive (Pumps & Compressors)
Subtotal Total
230 800 800 22 96 96 22 100 100 22 100 100 21 93 93 21 89 89 20 88 88 21 85 85 21 87 87 21 85 85 21 85 85 212 908 908

March 2011

Industrial & Marine Turbine Forecast - Gas & Steam Turbines

Kawasaki M1A/M1T Series
Outlook
 Technical features of the Kawasaki dry low NOx and Xonon catalytic combustion systems will add to M1A/M1T sales Sales expected to be strong for DG schemes in Japan, Asia/Pacific, Middle East, and to a lesser degree, for Western Europe and North America Well suited for Distributed Generation and Combined Heat and Power applications
120 100 80

Unit Production Forecast 2011-2020



60

40

20

Units

102

96

90

90

87

82

84

83

84

82

Orientation
Description. Open-cycle, single-shaft industrial gas turbine machine series. The M1T-33 is a twin-shaft model (see Technical Data below). Sponsor. The development of the M1A/M1T series of gas turbine machines was privately developed. Power Class. Standby generator sets (gensets) using this series of gas turbine machines have a rated output in the 1,240-4,800 kWe range. Status. In production. Total Produced. At the start of 2011, more than 4,200 M1A/M1T series gas turbine machines were estimated to have been built and installed. Of these turbines, over 2417 are of the current production models. Application. Gas turbine applications include simple-cycle generation, cogeneration duty, and Cheng Cycle/cogeneration duty. The series is proposed for various mechanical load drive applications. Price Range. Prices are estimated at $1.1-$2.0 million in 2011 U.S. dollars, depending on the unit. For electrical generation, the genset price is for a basic electric power skid-mounted generator package, including one simple-cycle (open cycle), single-fuel gas turbine; an air-cooled electric generator; a skid and enclosure; an air intake with basic filter and silencer; an exhaust stack; a basic starter and controls; and a conventional combustion system. Competition. Because of the wide power range of this group of Kawasaki machines, competition comes from machines produced by Dresser-Rand, Rolls-Royce, Solar, UTC PWPS, and Vericor. There is limited competition from OJSC Aviadvigatel, Motor Sich JSC, Siemens AG, and JSC Zorya-Mashproekt.

©2011

August 2011

Units



0

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

2018

2019

2020

Page 2

Industrial & Marine Turbine Forecast - Gas & Steam Turbines

Kawasaki M1A/M1T Series

Contractors
Prime
Kawasaki Heavy Industries (KHI) Gas Turbine Division, Akashi Works MWM Diesel und Gastechnik GmbH http://www.khi.co.jp/english/gasturbine/, 1-1 Kawasaki-cho, Akashi, Hyogo, 673-8666 Japan, Tel: + 81 78 921 1301, Fax: + 81 78 924 8654, Prime http://www.deutz.de, Carl-Benz-Str. 5, Mannheim, 68140 Germany, Tel: + 49 621 3840, Fax: + 49 621 384658, Licensee

Comprehensive information on Contractors can be found in Forecast International's "International Contractors" series. For a detailed description, go to www.forecastinternational.com (see Products & Samples/Governments & Industries) or call + 1 (203) 426-0800. Contractors are invited to submit updated information to Editor, International Contractors, Forecast International, 22 Commerce Road, Newtown, CT 06470, USA; rich.pettibone@forecast1.com

Technical Data
Design Features. (Please note that the Technical Data section covers the design features of the Kawasaki M1A/M1T machines but does not include the M1T-33.) Compressor. Air enters a screened inlet and passes through a two-stage 17-4 PH stainless steel centrifugal compressor. Pressure ratios are 8.0:1 to 9.2:1, depending on variant. Mass flow is 7.9-18.18 kg/sec, depending on variant. Design speed is 22,000 rpm. Compressor stator vanes are made of FCD45 ductile cast iron; shafts are made of 17-22A(S) cast iron; and discs are made of 17-4 PH stainless steel. Combustor. A single, vertically offset Hastelloy X cannular combustor is designed for easy maintenance and inspection. Features a single fuel nozzle and spark igniter; burns a variety of heavy- or poor-grade fuels. Turbine. A three-stage axial-flow turbine (four stages for M1A-23) is direct-coupled to the compressor rotor. Turbine speed is about 22,000 rpm; the front-mounted gearbox output speed is 1,500-1,800 rpm. Stage 1-2 turbine blades are made of B1900 material, and the Stage 3 blade is IN713C. The Stage 1 disc is Waspaloy, and the remaining discs are IN718. Stage 1-2 vanes are X-45, while Stage 3 is cast nickel-steel. Bearings. Contains one ball thrust and one roller journal bearing. Major alloy content is M50 steel. Accessories. An electric motor is used for starting; optional systems are pneumatic or gas expansion.

Dimensions. The approximate dimensions and weights of the Kawasaki M1A/M1T genset systems (including indoor-type exhaust silencers and control panels) are as follows:
Genset Mode GPS1250 GPS1500 GPS1750 GPS2000 GPS2500 GPS3000 GPS3500 GPS4000 GPS4500 Gas Turbine Model M1A-01 M1A-03 M1A-06 M1A-23 (a) M1T-01 (b) M1T-03 M1T-06 M1T-23 M1T-23S Length 7.6 m 7.6 m 7.6 m 8.0 m 8.0 m 8.3 m 8.3 m 9.1 m 9.1 m GENSET DIMENSIONS Width Height Weight 4.0 m 8.6 m 15.7 metric tons 4.0 m 8.6 m 16.7 metric tons 4.0 m 8.6 m 18.2 metric tons 6.6 m 9.15 m 26.0 metric tons 6.6 m 9.15 m 26.5 metric tons 6.6 m 9.15 m 28.0 metric tons 6.6 m 9.15 m 28.0 metric tons 7.0 m 10.35 m 40.2 metric tons 7.0 m 10.35 m 41.2 metric tons

(a) Formerly the M1T-01 was used. (b) Formerly the M1T-01S was used.

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Kawasaki M1A/M1T Series
The approximate dimensions and weights of the Kawasaki M1A/M1T genset systems in a GPB/GPC cogeneration system (including control room, gas compressor, cooling tower, HRSG, HRSG feed water pump, and diverter damper) are as follows:
COGEN SET DIMENSIONS Length Width 16 m 11 m 16 m 11 m 19 m 12.5 m

Genset Model GPB/GPC15D GPB/GPC15X GPB/GPC30D

Gas Turbine Model M1A-13D M1A-13X M1T-13D

Performance. The following are the performance parameters (simple-cycle duty, gas fuel) of the current Kawasaki M1A/M1T models:
APPLICATION = SIMPLE-CYCLE ELECTRICAL GENERATION ISO Base Load Power Heat Rate Pressure Exhaust Output LHV Ratio Efficiency Flow 1,240 kW 1,474 kW 1,302 kW 2,299 kW 1,475 kW 1,424 kW 2,053 kW 2,903 kW 2,907 kW 4,050 kW 15,546 kJ/kWh 14,862 kJ/kWh 16,587 kJ/kWh 11,247 kJ/kWh 15,093 kJ/kWh 15,182 kJ/kWh 14,548 kJ/kWh 15,093 kJ/kWh 15,234 kJ/kWh 14,674 kJ/kWh 9.3 9.4 7.6 8.9 9.5 9.6 11.4 9.4 9.5 11.4 23.2% 24.2% 21.7% 32.0% 24.0% 23.7% 24.8% 23.9% 23.7% 24.5% 8.1 kg/s 8.0 kg/s 7.7 kg/s 8.6 kg/s 7.9 kg/s 7.9 kg/s 9.8 kg/s 16.1 kg/s 15.9 kg/s 19.6 kg/s

Gas Turbine Model M1A Series M1A-11 M1A-13 M1A-13CC M1A-13CC (steam) M1A-13D M1A-13X M1A-23 M1T Series M1T-13 M1T-13D M1T-23

EGT 464°C 520°C 553°C 579°C 530°C 525°C 569°C 520°C 530°C 569°C

Variants/Upgrades
A large number of M1A/M1T variants have been made available, including twin-power plant machines. See the Performance subsection in Technical Data (above) for the parameters of the various machines. See Program Review for information on the M1A-23/M1T-23/-33 machines.

Program Review
Background. Kawasaki began developing its M1A/M1T combustion turbine in 1974, and the first production unit was installed in 1978. The series is virtually a scale-up of the Kawasaki S1/S2 gas turbine. It incorporates an added stage in the axial turbine. The M1A/M1T machines have a turbine speed of 1,500 to 1,800 rpm. As with the S1/S2, the M1A/M1T series machines are of simple open-cycle, single-shaft configuration, comprising a single can-formed combustor and axial-flow turbine, in addition to a surge-resistant compressor. Several variants are available, with the M1T units combining two M1A gas turbines in one unit connected to a single reduction gear. Kawasaki's relationship with International Power Technology, especially regarding the use of Cheng Cycle technology for units between 500 kW and 2,870 kW, has set aside doubts about the cogeneration marketplace, especially given recent GPCC15 sales activity. As IPT's technology caught on worldwide, KHI's four new models were designed to take advantage of the trend toward cogeneration and independent power production worldwide, as well as in North America. In the North American arena, equipment will be sold, installed, and serviced by US Turbine Corp and Cullen Detroit Diesel. Historical Activity. The following firms have been or are affiliated with Kawasaki on the M1A/M1T series:

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     Cullen Detroit Diesel Allison Ltd; Surrey, BC, Canada Detroit Engine and Turbine Co; Gepps Cross SA, Australia Ergen SpA; Lomagna (CO), Italy Industrial Machinery Supplies (Pty) Johannesburg, Republic of South Africa Ingen SA; Buenos Aires, Argentina Ltd;      MWM Diesel- und Gastechnik GmbH; Cologne, Germany Samsung Heavy Industries Co Ltd; Seoul, Korea Turbosystems Inc (TSI); Latham, New York, U.S. US Turbine Corporation, Maineville, Ohio, U.S. Williams & Lane Energy Inc; Benicia, California, U.S.

Kawasaki M1A/M1T Applications Gensets. The Kawasaki gas turbines in the M1A/M1T series provide power to a series of gensets for continuous and standby applications. Generator sets using the M1A and M1T for standby duty (40°C) are as follows:
GENSET RATING: STANDBY DUTY Standard Standard Rated Rated Generator Output Output Voltage 1,000 kW 1,250 kVA 400-6,600 V 1,200 kW 1,500 kVA 400-6,600 V 1,400 kW 1,750 kVA 400-6,600 V 1,600 kW 2,000 kVA 3,300-6,600 V 2,000 kW 2,500 kVA 3,300-6,600 V 2,400 kW 3,000 kVA 3,300-6,600 V 2,800 kW 3,500 kVA 3,300-6,600 V 3,200 kW 4,000 kVA 3,300-6,600 V 3,600 kW 4,500 kVA 3,300-6,600 V 4,000 kW 5,000 kVA 3,300-6,600 V 4,800 kW 6,000 kVA 3,300-6,600 V

GENSET MODEL GPS1250 GPS1500 GPS1750 GPS2000 GPS2500 GPS3000 GPS3500 GPS4000 GPS4500 GPS5000 GPS6000

Gas Turbine Model M1A-01 M1A-03 M1A-06 M1A-23 M1T-01S M1T-03 M1T-06 M1T-23 M1T-23S M1T-33A M1T-33

Cogeneration Installations. The following M1A/M1Ts are in GPB/cogeneration/dry low emissions/flexible heat and power use:
APPLICATION = COGENERATION GPB/GPC 15D GPB/GPC 15X GPB/GPC 30D Gas Turbine Turbine Model Dry Weight (Power Section) Generator Set Electric Output at 15°C Electric Output at 30°C Fuel Consumption at 15°C Exhaust Gas Volume Exhaust Gas Temp. at 15°C Cogeneration System Steam Production M1A-13D 1.0 tons 1,435 kW 1,225 kW 6,083 kW 3 22,600 Nm /h 520°C 4,580 kg/h M1A-13X 1.7 tons 1,385 kW 1,175 kW 5,967 kW 22,190 Nm3/h 528°C 4,550 kg/h M1T-13D 2.0 tons 2,825 kW 2,410 kW 12,166 kW 45,200 Nm3/h 520°C 9,170 kg/h

GPB15 DLE Electric Power. The Kawasaki Gas Turbines GPB15 DLE has the following output parameters in a cogeneration system (mt = metric ton):
GPB15 DLE COGENERATION SYSTEM SPECIFICATIONS Ambient Temperature 32°F/0°C 59°F/15°C 86°F/30°C 104°F/40°C Electric Output 1,500 kWe 1,434 kWe 1,226 kWe 1,089 kWe Fuel Consumption 6,271 kJ/s 6,083 kJ/s 5,525 kJ/s 5,172 kJ/s Heat Recovery Efficiency Efficiency 23.9% 49.2% 23.6% 52.7% 22.2% 55.9% 21.1% 58.3% Overall Efficiency 73.1% 76.3% 78.1% 79.4%

Steam Production 4.41 mt/h 3,087 kJ/s 4.58 mt/h 3,206 kJ/s 4.41 mt/h 3,089 kJ/s 4.30 mt/h 3,014 kJ/s

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GPB15X. Kawasaki Gas Turbines has developed an advanced gas turbine, the GPB/GPC15. Nominally rated at 1,500 kWe, this design incorporates many features and benefits typically not found on small industrial gas turbines. In addition to its good electrical efficiency, the GPB15 generator set has been designed for versatility and flexibility. The standard package includes all of the equipment and systems required to deliver low-cost power. In addition, ratings have been optimized to best suit a wide variety of applications, including on-site generation, cogeneration, peak shaving, and load management. When coupled with the Xonon Cool Combustion system, the GPB15 produces ultra-low NOx levels that are achievable with catalytic combustion, resulting in a clean, efficient gas turbine.
GPB15X WITH XONON COOL COMBUSTION SYSTEM Steam Amb. Electric Fuel Production Heat Gas Temp. Output Used (in millions) Electrical Recovery Overall Flow °F kWe MMBtu/hr lb/hr Btu/hr Efficiency Efficiency Efficiency Scf/hr 32 1,621 22.8 11,700 11.7 24.2% 51.4% 75.6% 25,207 59 1,423 20.7 11,100 11.7 23.4% 53.7% 77.1% 22,888 86 1,212 18.8 10,700 10.7 22.0% 57.1% 79.1% 20,746 104 1,072 17.6 10,400 10.4 20.8% 59.4% 80.2% 19,395

Air Flow lb/sec 18.60 17.23 15.91 15.05

Exhaust Exhaust Flow Temp. lb/sec °F 18.99 981 17.58 995 16.22 1,018 15.34 1,036

The following are GPCC15 system specifications for a Cheng Cycle cogeneration system using the M1A-13CC with duct burner and its supplemental fuel:
CHENG CYCLE COGENERATION Liquid Fuel Natural Gas Fuel 2,300 kW 2,300 kW 624 Nm3/h 607 kg/h 0-8,500 kg/h 0-8,500 kg/h 5.3 x 106 kcal/h 5.3 x 106 kcal/h 21.0% 20.5% 74.0% 70.0%

Output Fuel Consumption Steam Production Turbine Fuel Electrical Efficiency Overall Efficiency

Mobile Genset Systems. Kawasaki also offers mobile generation systems, intended primarily for emergency and standby duties. The fully mobile units carry the designations MGP1250, MGP1500, and MGP1750. As with the S1/S2 machines, trailer-type gas turbine generator sets are available. The trailertransportable mobile models are designated TGP250, 1500, 1750, 2000, 2500, 3000, and 4000. The two series normally burn kerosene or diesel oil. The TGP2500, TGP3000, TGP3500, and TGP4000 require a semi-trailer type of vehicle. For the TGP2500, the total vehicle weight is about 32 metric tons; for the TGP4000, the vehicle weight is about 38 metric tons. Marine Model. A marine version of the M1A-03, called the M1A-05, was introduced several years ago. An important feature of this model is the use of first-stage air-cooled blades coated with CoCrAlY. The marine model was developed as the prime power generator (at 1,200 kW) aboard guided-missile destroyers of the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force. Kawasaki M1A-13CC Steam Injection. In April 1986, International Power Technology (IPT), Redwood City, California, signed an agreement with Kawasaki to develop a new cogeneration system incorporating Cheng Cycle technology. The system would be built

around a modified machine, nominally rated at 1,100 kW. IPT's early estimates were that the Cheng Cycle could increase the turbine's power output by more than 70 percent and its generating efficiency by more than 50 percent. The Cheng Cycle is essentially a steam-injected gas turbine system that integrates a heat recovery boiler with a steam-injected gas turbine design and a sophisticated turbine/boiler control system to optimize plant output and efficiency. The system provides a cogenerator operator with a wide range of electrical and steam outputs designed to match daily and seasonal fluctuations in both electric power and process steam demand. In May 1987, IPT announced that it had licensed Kawasaki to manufacture and sell Cheng Cycle power generation systems. The license is exclusive to KHI worldwide, and specifically addresses gas turbines with base outputs between 500 kW and 2,000 kW. KHI offers Cheng Cycle systems based on its own gas turbines. The first commercial system uses an early M1A-01 machine modified for steam injection (under the KHI internal designation M1A-13CC). By slightly modifying the combustor and turbine and injecting steam from the exhaust-heat-recovery boiler, the Cheng Cycle system increases power output by almost

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80 percent and results in 1.5 times the thermal efficiency at one-third the NOx generation. According to Kawasaki, GPCC15 Cheng Cycle Cogeneration systems have been ordered by the following customers:
Customer KHI; Hyogo, Japan KHI; Hyogo, Japan Toho Gas; Aichi, Japan Toho Gas; Aichi, Japan Mainichi; Osaka, Japan Startup January 1988 July 1990 November 1990 June 1992 September 1992

M1A-23/M1T-23. In 1991, Kawasaki announced that it had developed two additional variants in its already-populous M1A/M1T machine series. The M1A-23 is a third-generation model based on an uprated and improved version of the M1A-03. The M1A-23 features a four-stage axial turbine, with turbine cooling provided at the Stage 1-2 nozzle vanes and turbine blades. Turbine inlet temperature is approximately 2120°F (1160°C). The M1A-23 has an efficiency rate of 27.3 percent. The M1T-23 gas turbine is a twin-turbine design using two M1A-23 machines driving through a parallel-shaft combining/reduction gearbox. The M1T-23 is rated at about 4.1 MW, but it has a heat rate of 14,595 kJ/kWh. Dry Low NOx Combustor for M1A-13A. In 1989, KHI initiated a development program for a dry low NOx combustion system for the M1A-13A gas turbine in cooperation with Tokyo Gas Company, Osaka Gas Company, and Toho Gas Company. Under that program, the first-generation combustor achieved a NOx level lower than 42.8 ppmv. The development of a second-generation combustor has been in progress since 1992. The development goal is less than 20 ppmv of NOx emissions and over 99.5 percent combustion efficiency. Emissions results, announced in mid-1995 and obtained through the optimization of improved design parameters, were less than 10 ppmv NOx (at 15 percent O 2 ), less than 15 ppmv CO (at 15 percent O 2 ), and negligible THC at the rated load in the engine test. Levels of less than 21 ppmv were quoted by Kawasaki for loads of 75-100 percent in 1997. Catalytica, Tanaka Agreement. In April 1995, Catalytica Inc (Mountain View, California) signed a new agreement with Tanaka Kikinzoku Kogyo KK for the manufacture and marketing of gas turbine catalytic combustion reactors being jointly developed by the two companies. The agreement was designed to accelerate the commercialization of the technology in specific market segments utilizing the respective strengths of each company. Under the terms of the new agreement, which superseded a 1988 development agreement, Catalytica and Tanaka have allocated commercialization rights along market and geographic lines. Catalytica received an exclusive license to manufacture and market catalytic combustion reactors on a worldwide basis for large gas turbines (greater than 25 MW power output) and for 1 MW to 3 MW Kawasaki turbines used in cogeneration applications. For small- to medium-size turbines (less than 25 MW), Catalytica received an exclusive license to work with turbine manufacturers in the Western Hemisphere and Western Europe.

IPT has supplied KHI with technical information to develop a standard system design. The Japanese firm will market the design and sublicense its distributors worldwide to sell and install the system with modifications to meet local requirements. KHI installed a complete M1A-13CC-based Cheng Cycle cogeneration plant at its Akashi Works facility as a demonstration plant. Initial work was completed in the first quarter of 1988, and plant operations began in early 1989. KHI announced in 1989 that it had added machines suitable for cogeneration duties to its product line: the M1A-13 machine ISO base-rated at 1,460-1,490 kW, with an efficiency of 26 percent, and the M1A-13CC (Cheng Cycle version) machine, ISO base-rated at 2,394-2,442 kW, with an efficiency of 34.5 percent. In 1986, it was announced that Powell Industries' US Turbine Corporation (USTC) would sell/service KHI's gas turbine engines packaged in USTC's electrical power generation units, with output ranging from 660 kWe through 2,861 kWe, although USTC's product offering extends through 51,180 kWe. Using the Japanese turbines as prime movers, USTC-manufactured gensets offered standby and continuous power for such applications as hospitals, banks, computer facilities, and small industrial plants. At the end of 1989, US Turbine became the exclusive U.S.-based manufacturer and distributor of the cycle system for KHI. USTC's product offering, using the M1A/M1T series of machines, was as follows:
USTC Model UST1200 UST1500 UST2100 UST2500CC UST3000 Prime Mover Model M1A-11 M1A-13 M1A-23 M1A-13CC M1T-13

US Turbine is no longer involved with the M1A/M1T series of gas turbine machines.

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Kawasaki M1A/M1T Series
Catalytica's Xonon Cool Combustion technology is a patented pollution prevention system that avoids the formation of NOx, a primary contributor to smog, by reducing localized combustion temperatures while achieving equivalent combustion efficiency and performance. Xonon has demonstrated NOx emissions of well under 2.5 ppmv, and it dramatically reduces emissions of CO and UHC. Xonon is the only combustion system demonstrated to meet California Air Resources Board and South Coast Air Quality Management District emissions guidelines for new gas turbines without using an exhaust cleanup system. of 4,800 kWe; it was designed to meet the demand for more powerful standby equipment having faster starting times. The M1T-33 gas turbine model is a twin-spool variant of the M1A-33 gas turbine machine. The M1A-33 features a single spool, two-stage centrifugal compressor, a three-stage axial power turbine, and a single can-type combustor. By integrating the gas turbine and a reduction gearbox, KHI reduced the number of components and lowered maintenance requirements. Kawasaki M1A/M1T Affiliates/Distributors. KHI's distributors have been active in the cogeneration arena. The most active has been MWM Diesel und Gastechnik, a firm that has installed 15 machines for cogen use. Ergen, STI, Williams & Lane, US Turbine Corporation, and Cullen have also installed machines (not all of these firms are currently in business).

Getting More Power More Quickly with the M1T-33
KHI has developed a new, higher-rated engine model, the M1T-33, for use in standby generator sets; the machine is the largest KHI gas turbine for use in a standby generation role in Japan. The new machine powers the PU6000 standby generator set with an output

Funding
No Japanese or U.S. government funding specifically pertaining to the Kawasaki M1A/M1T series of gas turbine machines has been identified.

Contracts/Orders & Options
No major commercial or military contracts specifically pertaining to the Kawasaki M1A/M1T series of gas turbine machines have been identified of late.

Timetable
Month Year 1974 1978 1979 1984 1986 1988 1989 1989 1989 1990 1991 1991 2001 2002 Major Development M1A/M1T design work begins Kawasaki M1A-01 becomes available M1T-01 becomes available Startup of first M1A-03 in U.S. Startup of first M1A-01 (in combined cycle) in U.S. Startup of first GPCC15 in Japan M1A-06 and M1T-06 become available M1A-13, M1A-13CC machines announced Startup of first M1A-11 used in non-Japanese cogen applications Commencement of tests on M1A-23 machine Startup of first M1A-13 in U.S. M1A-23/M1T-23 becomes commercially available Xonon catalyst-equipped M1A-13X machines enter service in U.S. Cummins Power Generation, Kawasaki Gas Turbines-Americas sign distribution agreement for Cummins to market, sell, and service generator sets/power systems powered by Kawasaki in the Americas KHI announces successful development of the M1T-33 at 4,800 kWe Continued production/availability of Kawasaki M1A/M1T series

Apr Sep Jan Early Dec Aug Jan Late Late Dec

1st half Thru

2004 2020

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Kawasaki M1A/M1T Series

Worldwide Distribution/Inventories
At the start of 2011, more than 4,200 Kawasaki M1A/M1T series gas turbine machines were estimated to have been installed worldwide. Of these turbines, over 2417 are of the current production models. Among the nations and territories using the M1A/M1T series of gas turbine machines, Japan is by far the largest customer, especially for machines for standby duty in commercial establishments. Other major customer countries include Canada, Germany, Korea (ROK), South Africa, the UAE, and the U.S.

Forecast Rationale
The Kawasaki M1A/M1T series of small gas turbine machines continues to sell moderately well – better than many machines in the 1-5-MW class – even in a very crowded power band. The Kawasaki machines can be easily and quickly installed in flexible cogeneration systems for hospitals, universities, and other small- to medium-size industrial establishments, thanks to their compact dimensions. The efficiency of these turbines in Cheng Cycle cogeneration configurations has added a considerable amount of appeal to customers requiring more than standby or peak utilization. In addition, the use of dry low NOx combustion systems for the M1A 13 and M1T-13 places the machine series virtually at the front of the class in terms of environmental friendliness. The use of a catalyst in the machine's combustor is also a proven means of substantially lowering gaseous emissions. Catalytica's Xonon Cool Combustion technology is a patented pollution prevention system that minimizes the formation of NOx, a primary contributor to smog, by reducing localized combustion temperatures while achieving equivalent combustion efficiency and performance. Forecast International expects that this will greatly assist in promoting sales of the M1A and M1T, most especially the M1T, along the U.S. West Coast and in other particularly emissions-sensitive regions. Kawasaki sees Xonon-equipped engines as a milestone in its program to expand the presence of its family of small gas turbines in the increasingly environmentally conscious North American market. While sales of gas turbine machines of less than 5,000 horsepower have been rather small over the past several years, the market regained some ground in the 1990s. However, Kawasaki never really felt the pinch, as the M1A/M1T series has always sold well, both in Japan and in other countries, such as the U.S., Italy, and Germany. We believe that it is only a matter of time before the KHI M1T-33, at 4,800 kW, catches on – in Japan initially, but perhaps later in other parts of the Asia/Pacific region. Despite its appeal, however, we do not see the machine making any inroads in the North American arena. For the near term, we expect that model to be used solely in Japan for use in standby generator sets. In the next decade, we project that Kawasaki will manufacture 880 M1A/M1T series gas turbine machines, for sale both by Kawasaki itself and through its associates. Production is expected to be driven by the demand for machines in distributed generation schemes, particularly in Japan, Asia, the Middle East, Africa, and to a lesser degree, Western Europe and North America. Overall, production of gas turbine machines in this series should remain healthy for quite some time. The agreement with Cummins Power Generation (December 2002) could lead to more sales of the M1A/M1T in North America, specifically in the U.S. At this point, we are refraining from forecasting production of the M1T 33 since that model/program is still in its early stages, and we have not seen orders for the machine.

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Kawasaki M1A/M1T Series

Ten-Year Outlook
ESTIMATED CALENDAR YEAR UNIT PRODUCTION
Designation or Program
Thru 2010 2011 High Confidence 2012 2013 2014 Good Confidence 2015 2016 2017 Speculative 2018 2019 2020 Total

Kawasaki Heavy Industries (KHI) - Gas Turbine Division
M1 A -03/-06/-13 MW 0.2 to

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    Thoughts about future power generation systems and the role of exergy analysis in their development Noam Lior * Department of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics, University of Pennsylvania, 297 Towne Building, 220 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6315, USA Abstract In face of the likely doubling of the world population and perhaps tripling of the power demand over the next 50 years, this paper (1) presents some thoughts on the possible ways to meet the power demands under the…

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