Task 4 – The Maintenance of the Acid – Base balance in the body (D1) pH is measured based on its acidity and alkalinity. There are many substances around the body that have different pH values. A pH of 7 is usually considered neutral, neither acid nor alkaline, this is the pH of water. In the body the acids and bases need to be in very close balance, this is called ‘acid base homeostasis. If it goes off too far in either direction then it could be fatal to the body. For example in the body the blood has a pH value of around 7.35 to 7.45, if the bloods pH value goes down to 6.9 then a person could die of a diabetic coma. If it goes up to 7.9 then a person could die of tetany or lock-jaw. Some examples of different pH values in the body are;
Stomach acid: 0.7 to 1.9
arterial blood plasma: 7.35 to 7.45
secretions of the pancreas: 8.1
saliva: 5 to 8
The wide variation of saliva depends on the food you eat. If you eat a meal which are high in flour and sugar then the acidity of the saliva will me much higher. If you eat a meal such as soup or a salad then the saliva will be more alkaline. The pH of the substances in the body can be affected by several things; here are some factors that can affect the pH in the body. 1. Movement- activity in the muscles created lactic acid. when the muscles lack oxygen in the muscle cells have an increased level of carbon dioxide in the muscles cells cause lactic acid to be produced. 2. Breathing- a good balance of the in and out breathe keeps the pH stable. Breathing in more increases acidity breathing out more creates alkalinity as it gets rid of carbonic acid through the carbon dioxide we breathe out. Carbonic acid is produced when carbon dioxide is dissolved in water in the cells and blood. During respiration carbon dioxide is diffused out the cells and into the blood plasma, the carbon dioxide is then carried through the blood to the lung where it is diffused from the capillary to the wall of the alveoli to get ready...
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